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Wr-\1>08,^H 




l^arbartj College itbuarg 

FROM THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



THROUGH 







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j-fx^xA. .J No. 108-Part III. 



%i. 




HYDROGRAPH ICJDFFICE, 



SAILING DIRECTIONS 



FOR 



Lake Huron, Straits of Mackinac, 



ST. CLAIR AND DETROIT RIVERS, 



AND 



LA.K:E ST. OL-A.III. 



WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1895. 



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\ 






/ 



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oolsrTBisrTS. 

\ 

Page. 

Preface 1 ▼ 

Note : * u __ vn 

List of charts L _ - nc 

Index - 91 

List of Hydrographlc OflQce publications 101 

List of Hydrographlc Office agents 107 

CHART. 
Current Chart, Lake Huron 71 

CHAPTER I. 
Straits of Mackinac - — . 1 

CHAPTER II. 
Lake Huron _ — 14 

CHAPTER III. 
St. Clair and Detroit rivers, and Lake St. Clair 38 

CHAPTER IV. 

Rules of the road for the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary 

waters as far east as Montreal 52 

CHAPTER V. 
Storm and weather signals, United States and Canada 64 

CHAPTER VI. 
Brief rules for the use of oil 61 

CHAPTER VII. 
Anchoring and riding out gales In deep water _ ..., 67 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Currents -- — 69 

CHAPTER IX. 
Life-saving service and instructions _ 72 

CHAPTER X. 
General information - 77 



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PIIEFA.OE. 



It 18 the intention of the Hydrographic Office to publish a complete 
set of sailing directions for the Great Lakes. 

So far there have beeu published : 

Part I, Lake Superior, St. Marys River, and Straits of Mackinac. 

Part II, Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and Straits of Mackinac, and the 
present work, 

Part III, Lake Huron, St. Clair and Detroit rivers, and Lake St. 
Clair. 

This will be followed, in turn, by a supplement to Part III : North 
Channel and Georgian Bay. 

Part IV, Lakes Erie and Ontario and a supplement to Part IV: The 
St. Lawrence River to Montreal. 

At Montreal this will connect with Hydrographic Office publication 
No. 100, thus giving complete sailing directions from Duluth, Minn., to 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

The general description of Lake Huron has been obtained from vari- 
ous encyclopedias, and the description of the coast and harbors chiefly from 
the annual reports and bulletins of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, 
and from charts published by the United States Engineers. 

The lighthouses, lightvessels, ranges, beacons, buoys, and daymarbs 
are described from the publications of the U. S. Lighthouse Board, and 
the Department of the Marine and Fisheries, Canada. 

Through the courtesy of local authorities much valuable data has been 
procured. 

The first issue of such a work can not be complete and the Office must 
depend upon the cooperation of those who dwell near the lakes, as well 
as of those who navigate them, for prompt information concerning any 
errors or omissions. Such cooperation is earnestly requested. 

The articles appended to this work are such as may be of interest and 
value to the mariner : 

" The New Rules of the Road of the United States '* (Great Lakes). 

" Signals : Weather, Storm, and Temperature, with Diagrams, United 
States and Canada." 

" Brief Rules for the Use of Oil," with diagrams. 

"Anchoring and Riding out Gales in Deep Water." 

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VI PREFACE. ^ 

" Currents of Lake Huron/^ with map, United States Weather Bureau. 

" Life-Saving Service/' with diagrams. 

" General Information.^' 

The thanks of the Offioe are due, for valuable information furnished in 
response to its circular letter, to — 

Geo. M. Lanie, Esq., Secretary of Board of Trade, Detroit, Mich. 

John J. Hill, Esq., Mayor of Marine City, Mich. 

J. C. Durling, Esq., Harbor Master, Marine City, Mich. 

C. T. Morley, Esq., Lake Carriers' Association, Marine City, Mich. 

Frank Hart, Esq., Marine City, Mich. 

W. H. Scott, Esq., Marine City, Mich. 

Fred Denny Larke, Esq., President of Rogers City, Mich. 

Ira O. Trumbull, Esq., Huron City, Mich. 

John Easby, Esq., President of village of Mackinac, Mich. 

C. S. Nims, Esq., Mayor of Sand Beach, Mich. 

Capt. Geo. Banks, Au Sable, Mich. 

R. S. Chilton, Esq., U. S. Consul, Gtxierich, Ontario. 

Arthur M. Clark, Esq., U. S. Consul, Port Sarnia, Ontario. 

M. P. Thatcher, Esq., U. S. Consul, Windsor, Ontario. 

John Patton, Esq., U. S. Consul, Amherstburg, Ontario. 

Edwin F. Bishop, Esq., IT. S. Consul, Chatham, Canada. 

This work has been prepared by Lieutenant D. H. Mahan, U. S. Navy, 
in charge of the Division of Sailing Directions ; assisted by Mr. R. C. Ray, 
U. S. Navy. 

The charts and illustrations were prepared under the direction of Mr. 
G. W. Littlehales, in charge of the Division of Chart Construction of this 

Office. 

C. D. SIGSBEE, 

Commander^ U. S. Navy, Hydrographer. 

U. S. Htdbogbaphio Offiob, * 

Washington, D. C, Ma/rch 1, 1895, 



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NOTE. 



The bearings^ courses^ and trend 6f the land are true and given in points 
and d^rees. 

The directions of the winds, the points from which they blow; the 
directions of the currents^ the points toward which they set. 

Distances are expressed in nautical miles (the equivalent statute miles 
follow in parentheses). 

It is well to remember that on Hydrographic Office charts for the Great 
Lakes bearings and courses are true ; distances are given in nautiocJ, miles 
(the equivalent statute miles follow in parentheses). 

On U. S. Engineer charts bearings and courses are true \ distances are 
given in staMe miles. 

On British Admiralty charts bearings and courses are majnetio ; dis- 
tances are given in navUocU miles. 

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XT. S. Engineers' charts to be used in connection with these 
sailing directions. 



^ STRAITS OF MACKINAC. 

No. 4. Straits of Mackinac. 

LAKE HURON. 
No. 22. Lake Huron. 
No. 23. South end of Lake Huron. 
No. 21. Presque He and Middle Islands. 
No. 19. Thunder Bay. 
No. 18. Saginaw Bay. 
No. 9. Tawas Harbor. 
No. , 6. Saginaw River. 
No. 47. Sand Beach Harbor of Refuge. 

ST. CLAIR RIVER. 
No. 37. St. Clair River. 

LAKE ST. CLAIR. 
No. 41. Lake St. Clair. 

DETROIT RIVER. 
No. 56. Detroit River. 

The following British Admiralty charts also cover the coasts described : 
No. 334. Mackinac Strait. 
No. 328. Port Collier. 
No. 678. Lakes Erie and Huron (plans, Rattlesnake, Penetanguishene, Gode- 

rich, Rondeau Harbors, Port Huron). 
No. 519. Lake Huron. 
No. 906. Cabot Head to Cape Smith and Entrance to Georgian Bay (plans, 

Tobermory Harbor, Club Harbor, Rattlesnake Harbor). 
No. 330. St. Clair Lake and River. 



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CHAPTEE L 

STRAITS OF MACKINAC. 



STRAITS OF MACKINAC. . 

The Straits of Mackinac on the 46° 50' parallel, between Point Detour 
and the NE. point of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan on the east, and 
Waugoshanoe light and Point aux Chines on the west, are 41 f (48) miles 
long. At the eastern and western entrances between the points mentioned 
the Straits are respectively 22| (26 J) and 11 (12|) miles wide, but con- 
tracted in the Straits proper to 4 (4 J ) miles in width between Point St. Ignace 
on the north, and Mackinac lighthouse on the south. It is here further 
narrowed by Graham Shoals on the north shore ; these shoals are marked 
by buoys, and are not in the direct route of vessels using the south channel ; 
vessels using the north channel must pass south of the red bell buoy on 
the south shoal. 

The north shore of the Straits is much indented by bays and lined by 
islands. There are several offlying shoals, but the water is deep close-to, 
and they offer no serious obstructions to navigation, being out of the direct 
track. 

The south shore of the Straits is comparatively free from indentations. 
Shoal water extends some 4 (4J) miles WNW. from the extremity of 
Waugoshance Point; the outer extremity of this shoal being marked by 
Waugoshance lighthouse. 

The water in the Straits is generally deep, and the shoals lying near the 
usually traveled routes are marked by lighthouses, lightvessels, or buoys. 

ROUTES. 

Point Detour to GheboygsJi. — With the buoy on range with Point 
Detour light and distant J mile, a course SW. J W. (S. 46° 24' W.) for 
14 J (16f ) miles will bring Spectacle Reef light abeam to port, distant J 
mile. ' Thence SW.by VV. f W. (S. 63° 16' W.) 14J (16f) miles, passing 
southward of Poe Reef lightvessel, to a point ^ mile NNE. ^ E. (N. 32° 
20' E.) from the Crib light off Cheboygan, then follow directions for 
entering the harbor. 

Point Detour to Waugoshance Light.— With the buoy on range with 
Point Detour light, and distant J mile, a course WSW. J W. (S. 73° 07' 

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2 StRAITS OF MACKINAC, 

W.) for 2Si (27) miles will pass Bois Blanc light abeam, distant H (H) 
miles; thence W. f N. (N. 86° 46' W.) 7 J (8i) miles to the channel 
between Mackinac and Round islands. 

With the red buoy in this channel abeam to starboard a course WSW. 
f W. (S. 71° 43' W.) for 5J (6J) miles, will bring Old Point Mackinac 
abeam, distant 1 J (Ij) miles. Thence W. J 8. (S. 87° 11' W.) for 14f 
(17) miles to abeam of Waugoshance light, distant | mile. 

Point Detour to Main Ohannel into Georgian Bay. — With the buoy 
on range with Point Detour light, and distant i mile, a course of SE. by 
E. i E. (8. 69° 03' E.) for 44 (60f ) miles, will bring a vessel abeam of Duck 
Isfamd figfat, diBtiint 3} (4i) mik»; &BBW a coiaw £S£. I JL (& 
E.) for 65 (63i) miles should bring a vessel to the entrance of the main 
channel, with Cove Island light abeam and distant less than one mile. 
Leave the buoy on Bad Neighbor rock to the northward. 

For directions for Georgian Bay see supplement. 

Point Detour to Southampton. — From on range Detour light and 
buoy, and i mile from the buoy, a SE. J 8.' (8. 39° 22' E.) course for 
135 J (156) miles will bring a vessel off Southampton. See special direc- 
tions for entering. 

Point Detour to Kincardine. — From on range Detour light and buoy, 
and i mile from the buoy, a SE. f 8. (8. 36° 34' E.) course for 143^ 
(165) miles will bring a vessel off Kincardine. This course will pass 
close eastward of the 9-fathom hsmk in the middle of the lake. 

Point Detour to Ooderich. — From on range Detour light and buoy, 
and i mile from the buoy, a SE. J 8. (8. 35° 09' E.) course for 162^ 
(187) miles will bring a vessel off Goderich. 

Point Detour to St. Olair River and Intermediate Points.— With 
the buoy on range with Point Detour light and distant J mile, a course 
SSE. I E. (8. 30° 56' E.) for 39J (45J) miles will bring a vessel abeam 
of Presque He lighthouse, distant 4 (4J) miles. (Run in on the range 
if desirous of making this harbor.) The same course continued for 22f 
{26i) miles will pass Thunder Bay Island light abeam, distant 3 J (3f) 
miles; if wishing to make Alpena, round Thunder Bay Island SE. point 
at the distance of J mile, then a course SW. by W. | W. (S. 63° 16' W.) 
for 3J (3|) miles until the buoy off North Point bears north, distant J mile, 
or the extreme eastern part of North Point bears N. by W. J W. (N. 16° 
52' W.), distant IJ (1 J) miles, thence a NW. by W. J W. (N. 66° 05' W.) 
course for 7 J (8f) miles will bring a vessel J mile off of Thunder Bay 
River light. Continuing on from abeam of Thunder Bay Island light, 
head 8. by E. f E. (S. 18° 16' E.) for 78 (89f) miles, which will bring a 
vessel east of Sand Beach Harbor, distant 3| (4 J) miles; (if desired, run 
in for this harbor). When east of Sand Beach Harbor change course to 
8. } E. (8. 8° 26' E.) for 50| (58J) miles, which will bring a vessel 2 (2J) 



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NORTH SHORE, 6 

miles NE. bj E. J E. (N. 59^ 03' E.) from Fort Gratiot lighthouse and 
close to the Canadian shore. See special directions for entering river. 

Point Detour to Saginaw River and Intermediate Points.— With 
the buoy on range with Point Detour light and distant i mile, a course 
8SE. } E. (S. 30° 56' E.) for 62i (71f) miles, will bring a vessel 
abeam of Thunder Baj iight, distant 3^ (3|) miles (for running into 
Thunder Bay, see specual ^Unctions); chanjge course to S. | W. (S. 5° 
37' W.) for 40 (46) miles, which will hni^ a voBsel east of Au Sable light, 
distant 4f (5J) miles, (if desired, run in for Au -Sable when off it) If 
intending to make Tawas, change course to SW. (S. 45° W.) for 14J 
(16|) miles, until Tawas lighthouse bears north, distantly (1^) miles, 
when change course to NW. by W. J W. (N. 57° 39' W.) for the mill at 
Tawas. Run in on this course, passing southward of Tawas Point buoy, 
until Tawas lighthouse bears E. ^ N. (N. 84° 22' E.), when change course 
to NE. I E. (N. 52° 01' E.) and run into the harbor and anchor in 3J 
fathoms of water. Continuing, when east of Au Sable light, distant 4| 
(5J) miles, change coumc to SSW. | W. (S. 32° 20' W.) for 52 (60) miles, 
passing between the buoys NW. of Charity Island and the buoy SE. of 
Gravelly Point; this will bring a vessel off Saginaw River. For entering 
see special directions. 

NORTH SHORE. 

From Point Detour the north shore trends in a westerly direction for 
nearly 37| (44) miles, then it abruptly changes its direction to nearly south 
for 12^ (14) miles to Point St. Ignace. From Point St. Ignance to Point 
aux Chines the coast is clear of danger at the distance of a mile, excepting 
the Graham shoals. 

Point Detour is a long narrow peninsula forming the SW. entrance to 
Detour passage. There are 18-foot patches at | mile SW. and SE. of the 
point, the latter being marked by a buoy. 

Detour Light. — A fixed white light, visible 14^ (16|) miles, is shown 
from a white, skeleton tower with a stair cylinder. The tower is connected 
with a frame dwelling by a covered way. It marks the west side of the 
entrance to the St. Mary's River. 

Fog Signal. — The fog signal building is 50 feet east of the lighthouse. 
A 10-inch steam whistle gives a blast of 8 seconds duration, followed by 
a silent interval of 52 seconds. 

Point St. Vital is 3} (4) miles west of Point Detour, the shore between 
receding to the northward, forms a large bay open to the southward. 
In the.NE. corner of this bay is Carlton Bay, which might aflford protec- 
tion to small craft from northerly winds. Seven (8) miles from Point 
St. Vital is Beaver Tail Point. There are several outlying shoal patches 
here, and the shore should not be approached within IJ (IJ) miles. One 



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4 STRAITS OF MACKINAC. 

and one-half (If) miles west of Point St. Vital is Saddlebag Island, and 
2| (3J) miles farther westward, Albany Island. 

Martdn Reef is a rocky shoal having 7 feet least water, with shoals all 
around. The SE. end of this reef is 3J (4) miles S. by E. f E. (S. 19° 41' E.) 
from Beaver Tail Point, and 6J (7J) miles WSW. i W. (S. 70° 18' W.) 
from Point St. Vital. The reef extends one (IJ) mile northwesterly 
with deep water between the. shoal patches. It is a menace to navigation 
as it lies nearly in the track of vessels bound from Detour Passage to 
the channel between Mackinac and Round islands. 

Between Martin Reef and the mainland, in a northwesterly direction, are 
Tobin Reef, Surveyors Reef, and other patches with channels between. 
None of these channels should be attempted by strangers. 

Buoy. — A first-class can buoy, painted black, is moored off the SE. end 
of Martin Reef in 20 feet of water. Vessels should pass south of this 
buoy. 

Ooaat. — Between Beaver Tail Point and Point Fuyards, 8| (10) miles 
to the westward is a large indentation in which are several large and small 
islands, the principal of which are Strong, Boot, He la Salle, and He Mar- 
quette, the latter a large island with Marquette Bay on its NW. side. 
Amongst these islands are many inlets (Scammori Harbor being the largest), 
but on account of offlying shoals they are practically useless, except for 
small craft. 

Goose Island, 2J (2J) miles WSW. of Point^Fuyards is surrounded by 
shoals ; a reef extending for over one mile SSE. from its SE. end. From 
the eastern side, shoals extend out J mile with deep water between them 
and Marquette Island. From the western side, shoals extend off nearly 
I mile westerly and southwesterly ; this side of the island should not be 
approached within a mile. 

Eeef.— At 2J (3) miles SW. by W. J W. (S. 61° 52' W.) from Goose 
Island is a 6-foot patch with a 9-foot patch a short distance north of it. 
This reef is J mile long north and south, and ^ mile in breadth, being 
nearly circular in shape. It should be carefully avoided in navigating 
this part of the Straits. 

Point Bml^e. — Between the NW. shore of He Marquette and Point 
Brul6e is an indentation forming Marquette and other bays ; at the head 
of Marquette Bay is the village of Hessel. There is deep water in these 
bays, with many shoal spots, and they are only suitable for small craft. 

Search Bay. — West of Point Brul6e the shore recedes, forming Search 
Bay, open to the southward, its western boundary being Point St. Martin. 
The bay has deep water, no offlying dangers, and would serve as a shelter 
from northerly winds. 



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NORTH SHORE. 6 

Point St. Martin is steep-to and has a deep-water channel between it 
and a rocky shoal extending east and west one (IJ) mile in a direction 
parallel to the face of the point. 

St. Maxtin Bay. — Between Point St. Martin and Gross Point is St. 
Martin Bay, a large bay free from shoals and with deep water. It is pro- 
tected from all winds from east to south by way of north, and from SE, 
winds partially by He St. Martin and Grosse He St. Martin. Between 
these islands and the mainland are three channels into the bay, all having 
deep water. There are several rivers flowing into this liay at its head, the 
largest being the Pine and Carp rivers. 

He St. Martin, circular in shape, over a mile in diameter, lies IJ (IJ) 
miles to the westward of Point St. Martin, the channel between being 
perfectly safe if a mid-channel course is kept. 

From the south and SW. sides of this island, shoal water extends out 
for nearly a mile, and these sides of the island should be given a good 
berth in rounding it ; the rest of the island is steep-to. 

Grosse lie St. Martin is nearly If (2) miles long NNW. and SSE. 
and 1^ (1|) miles broad at its widest part. Shoals extend off ^ mile from 
the several points of the island. The channel between the islands is deep 
and safe. A course should be kept a little nearer to He St. Martin after 
passing the shoals extending from tliat island. This course will clear the 
spit extending J mile off the low east point of Grosse He St. Martin. 

The channel west of Grosse He St. Martin is also deep and safe in mid- 
channel. Shoal water ex*i;end8 to the eastward from Gross Point and to 
the westward from the NW. point of Grosse He St. Martin. 

Ooast, — Between Gross Point and Rabbits Back peak, 3^ (4) miles to 
the southward, the coast recedes, forming a bay open to the eastward; 
south of the peak is a small bight of shoal water, open to the SE., thence 
^the coast trends SSE. for 3J (4) miles to Point St. Ignace, with East 
Moran Bay, which is small and open to the eastward, IJ (1 J) miles NW. 
of the point. 

St. Ignace is on this bay, and projecting into the bay are several 
railroad docks. 

Graham Shoals.— North Graham lies } mile SSE. of Point St. Ignace, 
and has a least depth of 8 feet. South Graham lies | mile S8W. of 
North Graham and 1 J (1 J) miles south of Point St. Ignace, and has a 
least depth of 6 feet. There is a channel between the shoals and Point St. 
Ignace, but it should not be attempted. 

Currents. — The currents in the vicinity of Graham Shoals and in the 
Straits of Mackinac are often strong and irregular. After fresh gales, 
'vessels anchored in the Straits often tail to windward. 

Buoys. — A second-class can buoy, painted red, is moored in 15 feet of 
water on the south side of the center of North Graham Shoal. 



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6 STRAITS OP MACKINAC. 

A first-class automatic bell buoy, painted red, is moored on the south- 
easterly edge of South Graham Shoal in 24 feet of water. Vessels should 
pass south of this buoy. 

Ooa«t.— From. Point St. Ignaoe the coast trends WSW. for 2J (2|) 
miles to Point la Barbe, thence it changes its direction to the NW. for 2| 
(3) miles to West Moran Bay. All this coast is bordered with shoals and 
should not be approached within a mile. 

From West Moran Bay t^e coast is bluff, bending to the northward as 
far as Gros Cap, and is steep-to; thence it takes a northwesterly direction 
for 3| (4) miles to Point auz Chines, becoming low and broken by inlets, 
with shoal water extending off some distance. From Point aux Chines 
the coast trends northwesterly into Lake Michigan. 

St. Helena Island lies 1| (If) miles off the bluff, between West Moran 
Bay and Gros Cap. It is about a mile long NE. and SW. but shoal 
water extends from its S£. side for nearly J mile, its outer extreme being 
marked by a 

Buoy. — On the SE. end of a shoal extending southeastward from St. 
Helena lighthouse, a 25-foot spar buoy, painted black, is moored in 18 feet 
of water. In entering St. Helena Harbor from the westward, give this 
buoy a berth of 100 yards. 

There is deep water between the mainland and this island. 

Light. — On the SE. point of St. Helena Island is a white conical tower, 
65 feet high, connected by a covered way with a red dwelling, having a red 
roof. From this tower a fixed red light is shown, visible 14 (16J) miles. 

This light is a ^uide to vessels making a lee under St. Helena Island, 
and also a leading mark to vessels bound to the westward through the 
south channel of the Strait^ of Mackinac. 

Oaution. — Do not attempt to round the northwestern end of this island 
at night, unless its appearance under Gros Cap and the position of St. 
Helena Shoal are well defined and understood. 

St. Helena Shoal is IJ (If) miles west of the northwestern end of St. 
Helena Island, with deep water between, and with from 8 to 15 feet of 
water over it. 

The shoal is 750 yards in extent NW. and ,SE., and 500 yards NE. 
and SW., with 8 feet on its shoalest (southeastern) edge. The soundings 
are irregular, bottom rocky, with from 3 to 4 fathoms close-to. On the 
south side of the shoal is a 

Bxioy. — A second-class can buoy, painted in red and black horizontal 
stripes, marks the southern edge of the shoal. 

SOUTH SHORE. 

From the NE. point of the lower peninsula of Michigan to Cheboygan 
lighthouse the coast takes a general WNW. direction for about 8f (10) 



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SOUTH SHORE, 7 

miles, and can be approached to | mile. West of the lighthouse is 
McLeod Bay, extending to the SE., but almost filled with shoals having 
deep-water channels amongst them. 

In the western part of the bay shoal water extends a mile off shore. 
There is an 11-foot patch J mile NW. by W. (N. 66° 15' W.) from the 
Crib light, and a S-foot rock one (1 J) mile NW. by W. f W. (N. 60° 28' W.) 
from the same light. 

Buoy. — At I mile NNE. of Cheboygan lighthouse is Cheboygan Shoal 
with but 14J feet of water over it. A second-class nun buoy, painted 
black, is moored in 16 feet of water on the northern side of the shoal, and 
should be left to the southward in passing it. 

Lights. — ^On the north point of the land to the eastward of McLeod 
Bay is Cheboygan light station, a square tower, 33 feet high, rising from 
a dwelling from which is shown a fixed white light, varied by a white 
flash every minute, and visible llj (13) miles. 

Fog Signal. — ^The fog signal at this station is a 10-inch steam whistle 
giving a blast of 5 seconds, followed by a silent interval of 25 seconds. 
The fog-signal building is NE. of the lighthouse. 

Light.— On, an isolated crib off the west side of the dredged channel 
into Cheboygan River, is an octagonal tower 26f feet high, from which 
is shown a fixed red light, visible llj (13) miles. Vessels bound to 
Cheboygan should pass the crib close- to and then take the range. 

Oheboygan Range Light? are on the west side of the Cheboygan River 
on the prolongation of the center line of the cut and form a range for pass- 
ing through the cut. 

The front light is 42 feet above the lake level, shown from a square 
tower rising from a frame dwelling. 

The rear light is 68 feet above the lake level, exhibited from an open 
framework tower. The lights are fixed red, visible 7J (8J) miles, and the 
towers are 1,112 feet apart. The range is SSW. ^ W. (S. 32^ 20' W.). 

Oheboygan is at the mouth of the Cheboygan River, which drains an 
area of 850 square miles and empties into McLeod Bay, locally known as 
Duncan Bay. The locality is a heavy lumber-producing district, and its 
water traflSc is important. 

Lnprovements. — A channel 200 feet wide and 15 feet deep has been 
dredged from the 15-foot curve to the State road bridge, marking the 
upper limit of improvement. This channel has somewhat filled, and it is 
now contemplated to increase its depth to 18 feet, and extend the outer limit 
to the 1 8-foot curve. January, 1 894, the available depth was about 1 3 feet. 

A timber crib 40 feet square was built in 1881 on the north side of the 
entrance in 16 feet of water to mark the exact position of the cut and to 
serve as a guide for entering it. The crib is used as a foundation for the 
lighthouse previously described. 

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8 STRAITS OF MACKINAC. 

Directions. — When a mile off the crib light, make the range on a course 
SSW. i W. (S. 32° 20' W.) and stand in. 

Cheboygan to Lake Michigan. — Stand out with range lights or towers 
astern, in line, SSW. | W. (S. 32° 20' W.) until J mile outside of the 
crib light, when change course to NW. by W. (N. 56° 15' W.) and 
continue this course for 13J (16J) miles, when Mackinac light should be 
abeam, distant ^^ mile; then change course to W. J N. (N. 88° 36' W.) 
for 15J (17|) miles, which should bring a vessel abeam of Waugoshance 
light, distant f mile ; thence to port of destination. 

Oheboygan to Presque He. — Stand out with range lights or towers 
astern, in line, SSW. i W. (S. 32° 20' W.) until IJ (1 J) miles from the 
crib light, when change course to east for 6J (7J) miles, passing J mile to 
the northward of Cheboygan Shoal buoy ; thence change course to SE. 
by E. f E. (S. 64° 41' E.) for 45 (51 f) miles, which will take a vessel off 
Presque lie ; thence to port of destination. 

Oheboygan to Detour Passage. — Stand out with range lights astern, 
in line, SSW. i W. (S. 32° 20' W.) until J mile from the crib light, 
when change course to NE. by E. | E. (N. 63° 16' E.) for 14J (16f) miles, 
passing SE. of Poe Reef lightvessel ; this should bring a vessel abeam 
of Spectacle Reef light; thence NE. J E. (N. 48° 24' E.) for 14J (16f) 
miles will take a vessel off the entrance to Detour passage, with the buoy 
on range with Detour Point light, and distant J mile. 

It is not advisable to pass between Poe Reef lightvessel and Bois Blanc 
Island, except for vessels of light draft. 

Ooast. — From Cheboygan the coast trends northwesterly for 13 (15) 
miles to Mackinac City, and it is safe to keep it at a distance of a mile. 
The 4-fathom curve, excepting off the mouth of the Cheboygan River, in 
the western part of McLeod Bay, is not more than f mile off shore, but 
it generally follows the shore at about J mile. 

A little NW- of Point au Sable, 4| (5 J) miles N W. of Cheboygan Crib 
light, and at the village of Freedom, 3J (4) miles further on, the edge of 
the curve is f mile off shore. 

Mackinac City, on Old Point Mackinac, is an open roadstead and only 
protected from N W. winds. The best anchorage for small craft is about J 
mile offshore, SE. of the railroad pier. 

Light. — On Old Point Mackinac a light, flashing red every 10 seconds, 
is shown and should be visible, in clear weather, 13 J (15^) miles. 

The lighthouse is a cylindrical tower, 50 feet high, and forms the N W. 
corner of the keeper's dwelling, both built of buff brick. Roof of dwell- 
ing red ; lantern black. Fog-signal house 80 feet east of tower ; brown. 

Fog Signal. — A 10-inch steam whistle gives blasts of 5 seconds' dura- 
tion, with alternate silent intervals of 17 and 33 seconds.. 



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SOUTH SHORE. 9 

McOulpin Point is 1|(2) miles to the westward of Old Point Mackinac, 
the shore between forming a shallow bight, with shoal water, open to the 
northward. The point is a bluflf*, steep-to, and faces the NW. for over a 
mile. On the north extremity of the point is a 

Light.— The light is fixed white, visible 16 (18 J) miles. 

The lighthouse, on a bluff 70 feet above the lake level, is an octagonal 
tower, attached to the NW. corner of the dwelling, both yellow with red 
roofs. 

The light is a guide through the Straits. 

Coast. — From the SW. extremity of McGulpin Point, the shore recedes 
to the southeastward for a mile, then trends SW. for 2 (2J) miles, and 
then NW. for a mile, forming a bay 2 (2^) miles wide and a mile deep, 
with shoal water extending out from the shore for over J mile. 

This bay affords protection from all winds except those from north to 
west. From the SW. point of this bay the coast takes a general westerly 
direction for 8 (9J) miles to Waugoshance Point, with two shallow bights 
open to the NW. 

This part of the coast should not be approached within a mile, and as 
the extremity of Waugoshance Point is neared, a still wider berth should 
be given it. 

WAUGOSHANCE POINT, ISLAND, AND SHOALS. 

Waugoshance Point, a long, low, and narrow point, extends out from 
the mainland for If (2) miles and is further continued by several small 
islets. The point is the top ridge of a long shoal which extends out from 
the mainland for 5J (6 J) miles to Waugoshance lighthouse, the shoal 
having a mean breadth of If (2) miles. Waugoshance Island, If (2) 
miles westward of the extremity of the point, is a mile long east and west 
and i mile broad. 

Oaution. — In rounding Waugoshance shoal, do not pass between 
Waugoshance lighthouse and the island ; keep a lookout for Vienna Shoal, 
and give it a good berth. 

Waugoshance Lighthouse is on the northwestern end of Waugoshance 
Shoal, 2 miles NW. of Waugoshance Island. 

The light is fixed white, varied by a flash every 45 seconds and is 
visible 14^ (16 J) miles. 

The lighthouse, 65 feet high, is an iron tower, with a dwelling and a fog- 
signal building, all surrounded by a square crib. The buildings are 
painted red and white in alternate horizontal bands. The light marks 
Waugoshance Shoal and the turning point into Lake Michigan. 

Fog Signal. — The fog signal is a 10-inch steam whistle, giving blasts of 
5 seconds' duration, followed by a silent interval of 25 seconds. 
10988 2 



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10 STRAITS OF MACKINAC. 

Waugoshance Sixteen-Foot Shoal is 1^(1 J) miles NW. of Waugo- 
shance light^ and on a line between this light and White Shoal lightvessel, 
and nearly on a line between St. Helena lighthouse and Grays Reef light- 
vessel. 

These ranges will be useful in rounding this shoal at night. The shoal 
is marked by a 

Buoy. — A second-class nun buoy, painted black, moored in 23 feet of 
water. A half mile eastward of this buoy is an 18-foot patch. These 
patches are known as Rose Shoal. 

Vienna Shoal is IJ (IJ) miles WSW. J W. of Waugoshance light- 
house; it is 300 yards in length from east to west and 175 yards from 
north to south, with a least depth of 13 feet. The NW. point of the shoal 
is marked by a 

Buoy. — A second-class can buoy, painted in red and black horizontal 
Stripes, and moored in 18 feet of water. 

Grays Beef Lightvessel. — Between Vienna Shoal and this lightvessel 
is a channel 2J (3) miles wide, with deep water. 

The lightvessel has two masts, is schooner rigged, showing a black oval 
cage-work day mark at the fore masthead, and a red one at the main. Hull 
red, bulwarks white, with "Grays Reef" in large black letters on each 
side, and "No. 57'' on the stern. The lightvessel is moored in 20 feet of 
water off the easterly edge of Grays Reef. 

A fixed white light is shown at the fore masthead, and a fixed red light 
at the main, each 30 feet above the water, and visible (white) 9f (11 J) 
and (red) 7^ (8i) miles. 

Fog Signal. — The fog signal is a 6-inch steam whistle, which sounds 
as follows: Blast, 3 seconds; sitent interval, 10 seconds; blast, 1 second; 
silent interval, 10 seconds; blast, 1 second; silent interval, 35 seconds. 

White Shoal Lightvessel, 3^ (4) miles NE. by N. of Grays Reef 
lightvessel, is moored in 26 feet of water off the eastern edge of White 
Shoal. 

The lightvessel has two masts, is schooner rigged, with a black, oval 
cage- work day mark at each masthead. The hull is white, with "White 
Shoal" in large black letters on each side, and "No. 56" on the stern. 

A fixed white light is shown at each masthead; each being elevated 30 
feet and visible 9f (11 J) miles. 

Fog Signal. — The fog signal is a 6-inch steam whistle, which sounds 
as follows: Blast, one second; silent interval, 10 seconds; blast, 1 
second; silent interval, 10 seconds; blast, 3 seconds; silent interval, 35 
seconds. 

Buoy. — A first-class, 35-foot spar buoy, painted in red and black hori- 
zontal stripes, is moored at the SW. end of White Shoal in 18 feet of 
water. 



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ISLANDS AND SHOALS. 11 

ISLANDS AND SHOALS IN STRAITS OP MACKINAC. 

Uuder this heading will be considered the islands and shoals in the 
Straits which lie clear of the coast line, and which can not be considered as 
forming bounds to bays or harbors. They will be described from the 
eastward. 

Spectacle Reef.— This reef lies 9 (10^) miles east of the east point of 
Bois Blanc Island, and is almost in the track of ships bound from Detour 
Passage to the South Channel of Mackinac Straits. The reef is J mile 
long north and south, and ^ mile broad east and west, with a least depth 
-of 8 feet, on its southern part. On the northwestern edge of the reef 
from a square crib is shown a 

Zaght. — The light is flashing red and white, alternately, every 30 sec- 
onds, and is visible 15 (17^) miles. 

. The lighthouse is a conical, gray tower, 97 feet high, with dome and 
railings painted black, surrounded by a square wooden crib on which are 
two white frame fog-signal houses, and a white frame boathouse. 

This light serves as a guide to the Straits from the eastward. 

Fog Signal. — The fog signal is a 10-inch steam whistle, giving blasts 
of 3 seconds, with alternate silent intervals of 12 and 42 seconds. 

Bajmolds Reef, 3^ (3|) miles to the westward of Spectacle Reef is a 
dangerous shoal with from 12 to 13 feet of water over it. It should not 
be approached nearer than ^ mile. Its northern edge is marked by a 

Buoy. — A second-class can buoy, painted in red and black horizontal 
stripes, is moored in 17 feet of water, and marks this shoal. 

Poe Reef is 1| (1|) miles from the SE. end of Bois Blanc Island. 
The reef extends east and west 2,000 yatds, with a least depth of 12 feet 
of water over it. There is a narrow channel north of it, which should not 
be attempted by strangers. 

On the eastern end of this reef, to mark the north side of South Chan- 
nel, in 41 feet of water, is moored a 

Lightvessel. — The vessel shows simultaneously from three lens lanterns 
encircling the fore masthead a fixed white light. The light is 40 feet above 
the lake level, and is visible llf (13 J) miles. The vessel has two masts, is 
schooner rigged, without a bowsprit. There is a circular black cage-work 
day mark at the fore masthead, with a small black smokestack, and the fog 
signal between the masts. The hull is red, with "Poe Reef'^ in large 
white letters on each side, and "No. 62'^ on each bow. 

Fog Signal. — ^A 6-inch steam whistle sounds blasts of 5 seconds' dura- 
tion, separated by silent intervals of 10 seconds. If the whistle be 
disabled, a bell will be rung by hand. 

Bois Blanc Island forms the north boundary to the South Channel, 
Straits of Mackinac. Its greatest length is 9 J (11) miles WNW. and 



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12 STRAITS OF MACKINAC. 

ESE., and its breadth for half this distance is 4 (4^) miles, narrowing to 
^ mile at its northwestern end. 

About 2} (2^) miles from its eastern end a narrow peninsula extends 
put from the northern shore northerly for 1^ (If) miles, tapering at its 
northern edge to a breadth of but J mile. On the NE. point of this 
peninsula is a 

Light. — The light is fixed white, 53 feet above the lake level, and 
visible 12} (14}) miles. 

The lighthouse is a square tower, 38 feet high, on a yellow dwelling. 

The lighthouse serves as a guide into the channel between Round and 
Mackinac islands. 

Shoal. — NW. of the light, ^ mile, is a shoal with 17 feet of water 
over it. 

lafe-Saving Station. — Bois Blanc Station is about half way between 
the east and SE. points of the island. 

Ooaat of the Island. — From the peninsula, the coast of the island 
trends ESE. for 2^ (2|) miles, and is safe to approach to i mile. Shoal 
water extends off the east point of the island for nearly ^ mile and follows 
the southeastern side at this distance until off the SE. point, when it 
extends off as a spit for a mile. From the southern edge shoals extend 
off for nearly } mile, closing in to ^ mile at the point where the southern 
coast changes its direction to the northwestward. The shoal water follows 
the trend of the coast to the NW. end of the island except at 

Zela Shoal.— Half way between the NW. and SW. ends of Bois Blanc 
Island a narrow spit extends out northwesterly for 1} (2) miles from Zela 
Point and is marked on its extreme NW. end by a 

Buoy. — A third-class can buoy, painted red. There is no channel between 
this buoy and the island. 

The northern shore of the island for 3J (3}) miles from the north point 
has shoal water extending out for } mile, and Bois Blanc is connected 
with Bound Island by shoals. A rocky shoal of 3 feet lies almost on the 
edge of the 4-fathom curve about one mile NE. of the north point with 76 
feet close-to. This is a dangerous spot. About 3 J (3}) miles to the eastward 
from the north point, the shore becomes steep-to and continues so to the end 
of the peninsula. The bight formed by the peninsula gives good protection 
from SE. winds. 

Round Island is J mile from Bois Blanc Island, with which it is con- 
nected by shoals. Shoals extend eastwardly 1} (2) miles from the 
southeastern side of the island. 

The NW. point of the island extends in a long narrow point for J 
mile, with shoals on each side. 

Shoal. — A 24-foot shoal extends 1} (2) miles NE. from the extreme 
N Wi point of Round Island almost to mid-channel. 



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ISLANDS AND SHOALS. , 13 

Major Shoal lies 2^ (2|) miles SW. by W. of the NW. point of Bound 
Island. 

The general direction of the shoal is NW. and SE. and it is 1,200 feet 
long. There is a least depth of 14 feet of water 400 feet SE. of the 

Buoy. — A second-class can buoy, painted in red and black horizontal 
stripes, is moored in 19 feet of water on the middle of the shoal. 

Mackinac Island, 2 (2|) miles eastward of Point St. Ignace is 2^ (3) 
miles long and If (2) miles broad. Its southern part, on which is the 
town and fort of Mackinac, forms the northern shore of the narrowest 
part of the Straits of Mackinac. The island is of importance as a military 
station. 

Mackinac. — The town of Mackinac at the SE. end of the island is 
on the north channel of the Straits of Mackinac. Many large passenger 
and transient steamers stop here. The town is a coaling station, and is 
a great resort for invalids and tourists. 

Harbor. — The harbor is between Biddle and Mission points. It is 
open to the southward and exposed to the wind from east or west, which 
often makes such a heavy sea that landing is impossible. 

The water front of Fort Mackinac comprises nearly J of the water front 
of the whole harbor. 

Buoy. — A third-class can buoy, painted red, is moored in 16 feet of water, 
at the end of a spit extending off from the SW. point of Mackinac Island. 
Vessels should pass south of it, and avoid the shoal off the NW. point of 
Kound Island. 

Directions — ^From the Eastward. — Steer for the middle of the passage 
until the docks are ranged, when haul up for them, giving the SE. point 
of the island a berth of J mile. 

From the Westward.— Should the buoy off the SW. point of the 
island not be seen, open up Bois Blanc light a point on the starboard 
bow until the red light (private light) on the south pier bears north, when 
haul up for the docks. 

For clearing the spit off the S W. point of the island, a good range is 
with the block house on Fort Mackinac on a line with the south pier head. 

Current. — During the prevalence of strong easterly or westerly winds 
a strong current sets through the channel between these islands, sometimes 
as great as 6 or 8 knots an hour. In the harbor, inside the range of the 
points, the current is usually contrary to that in the passage and is caused 
by the eddy. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage is fbund in the harbor anywhere north of 
the range of the north pier, in from 3 to 5 fathoms of water. The docks ex- 
tend out about 500 feet ESE. and have 16 feet of water at their outer ends. 

There are no pilots, but tugs are available. Wharfage is charged at the 
rate of 5 cents per 100 pounds. 



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CHAPTER 11. 

LAKE HURON. 



Lake Huron is 263 miles long^ 101 miles broad and has an area of 
21,000 square miles, a maximum depth of 750 feet, and an altitude above 
the sea of 581.28 feet. The north and NE. shores of Lake Huron are 
mostly composed of sandstone and limestone, and where metamorphic rocks 
are found, the surface is broken and hilly, rising to elevations of 600 feet 
or more above the lake, unlike in this respect the southern shores skirting 
the peninsula of Michigan and southwestern Ontario, which are compara- 
tively flat and of great fertility. Georgian Bay in the northeastern part 
of the lake lies entirely within the Dominion of Canada, whilst Thunder 
Bay on the west and Saginaw Bay on the SW. are in the State of Michigan. 
The chief tributaries of the lake on the United States side are Thunder 
Bay River, the Au Sable, and the Saginaw ; on the Canadian side are the 
French River from Lake Nipissing, the Severn from Lake Simcoe, the 
Muskoka and the Nottawasaga, all emptying into Georgian Bay. 

HARBORS OF REFUGE. 

Sand Beach, 50 miles northward of the St. Clair River, on the Michigan 
side, is the only artificial harbor of refuge on the lake on the American 
side. Twenty-one feet can be taken in. 

Ck>derich, Canada, E. by S. from Sand Beach, is also a harbor of 
refuge but only for vessels drawing less than 16 feet. 

NAVIGATION. 

As a rule, navigation opens in the middle of April and closes the middle 
of December. 

The two great evils to navigation are fogs and snow. There are no tides 
and but light currents for the master to contend with on the lakes, and as 
these are the most uncertain of all elements for the navigator to calculate 
and allow for, it reduces very much the per cent of danger in lake naviga- 
tion; hence, the safe navigation of the lakes is confined to a correct com- 
pass, with a knowledge and frequent use on the part of the master of the 
azimuth tables ; the precaution to take cross bearings of prominent points 
and from them plotting the position frequently on the chart; also, the 
familiar use of the chart in laying courses and correcting the same for 
variation and deviation. 

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DANGERS — WEST SHORE, 15 

DANGERS— UNITED STATES SHORES. 

Oheboygan Shoal, see page 7. 

Poe Beef, see page 11. 

Spectacle Reef, see page 11. 

Bajmolds Reef, see page 11. 

Martin Reef (north shore), see page 4. 

Tobin and Surveyors Reef (north shore), see page 4. 

Straits of IKlackinac to Thunder Bay;-rSE. of Adams Point one mile^ 
and J mile off shore, is a 4-foot shoal. 

•E. i S. (8. 81° 33' E.) of Old Presque He lighthouse 1,000 yards is an 
extensive shoal of 9 feet, with 15 feet a short distance SE. of it. 

In the first bight to'the southward of Presque He Harbor are several 
patches of 6 feet and less. From the SW. point of False Presque He 
Harbor, flats and detached shoals extend off southeasterly for nearly 1| (2) 
miles ; the outer patch of 1 7 feet lying one (1 J) mile off shore. 

Shoal water extends J mile southward from the SE. point of Middle 
Island and ^ mile from the remaining portions of the island. 

One thousand yards from the SE. end of the island is a 3-foot patch 
surrounded by an extensive shoal ; a buoy is moored eastward of the shoal. 

Midway between Middle Island and the mainland is an extensive shoal, 
least water 6 feet, and SSW. and south of the west end of Middle Island 
are 16 and 17 foot patches. 

Thunder Bay. — From Thunder Bay Island, shoals extend to the main- 
land and northwestward to Rond Island and the point north of it; shoals 
continue for 350 yards SE. from the SE. point of Thunder Bay Island. 
A wreck, steamer D. M. Wilson, lies If (2) miles NE. from Thunder 
Bay Islands light. 

From North Point shoals extend southeasterly one(lj) miles; theSE. 
end of the shoals is marked by a buoy. 

Off Grass Island at the head of Thunder Bay are two detached shoals 
at a distance of j and one (IJ) mile; the outer shoal is J mile long NW. 
and SE., with a least depth of 10 feet of water. SW. of this shoal is a 
small patch of 16 feet. Shoals extend off this part of the bay for over a 
mile. 

Shoals connect Sulphur Island with the mainland and extend a mile 
northward from the island curving toward Partridge Point, from which a 
spit extends eastward for i mile. One (1^) mile eastward of the north 
point of Sulphur Island is the north point of an offlying shoal, least water 
13 feet, extending southeastward | mile. Between this shoal and the 
southern part of the island is a patch of 1 4 feet. 

The southern portion of Thunder Bay is filled with shoals, which 
extend northward from South Point 3 (3 J) miles, the northern ^ge of 
which takes a general W. by N. direction to the mainland. 



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16 LAKE HURON. 

Between South Point and Black River Island the shore should not be 
approached within If (2) miles. 

Black River Island to Point an Sable.— Foul ground surrounds Black 
River Island; extends to the ENE. | mile from the island and connects 
the island with the shore. Rocky spots extend one (1^) mile eastward 
from Black River. A spit extends nearly a mile ENE. from Sturgeon 
Point. Between Harrisville and Spring Mills, shoals extend off shore 
one mile. 

Six (7) miles northward of Sable River, is a 9-foot spot one mile off shore. 

Saginaw Bay. — Shoals surround Point au Sable to tb^ distance of | mile, 
and fill up the small bight west of the point. The shore between Point 
au Sable and Tawas Point should not be approached within one mile. 

Tawas (Ottawa) Point has a sand spit extending from it nearly a mile 
southwesterly and westerly. The SW. and NW. ends of this spit are 
marked by buoys. 

The western shore of Tawas Bay has 18 feet of water a mile off shore. 
The shore from Tawas Bay to Gravelly Point should not be approached 
within a mile, especially off Mason Creek, where the shoals extend farther. 
From Gravelly Point shoals, least depth 11 feet, extend southeasterly 2 J 
(2f ) miles ; the extreme southeastern edge of this shoal is marked by a 
buoy; a detached 17-foot patch is a short distance southward of the buoy. 

The head of the bight within Gravelly Point is filled with shoals, with 
a 16-foot detached shoal in the northern part. The 3-fathom curve is 
nearly a mile eastward .of Point aux Gres, and just outside of ah 8-foot 
patch ; from this patch the 3-fathom line curves SW. by S. to the head of 
the bay ; outside of the line on the west side of the bay there are no dangers. 

Off the mouth of tlie Saginaw River the 4-fathom curve is 3 (3 J) miles 
off shore. A shoal with 16 feet of water, and extending east and west 
nearly a mile, lies 4 (4|) miles NNE. of the mouth of the Saginaw River; 
it is a mile outside of the 3-fathom curve. 

, The whole south and east sides of Saginaw Bay to Sand Point are filled 
by a flat which extends from the eastern shore 7 (8) miles. From Sand 
Point the flat continues northerly, filling up the eastern entrance to the 
bay, to Little Charity and Charity islands, surrounding these islands and 
extending in all directions from Charity Island If (2) miles. It is marked 
on its northwestern edge by a buoy. 

Between Sand point and Pointe aux Barques, flats and shoals extend off 
from one to 2 miles. 

Off Partridge River is a shoal, least water 5 feet, extending north and 
south for over a mile. 

A reef extends to the NW. from Pointe aux Barques IJ (If) miles. 

Pointe Aux Barques to Pointe Aux Barques Lighthouse. — There 
are ledges and detached rocky spots, rendering the coast dangerous IJ (IJ) 



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DANGERS — EAST SHORE. 17 

miles from the shore. Orion rock, with 6 feet of water over it, lies one 
(1 J) mile NW. of Willow River wharf. There is a 2-foot spot | mile 
east and an 8-foot spot one (1^) mile NNE. of Pointe aux Barques light- 
house. Beefi extend to the eastward 2 miles from the light ; their outer 
edge is marked by a buoy. 

Pointe Aux Barques Lighliionse to Fort Gratiot laghthonse. — 
Between Pointe aux Basques light and Forest Bay, bowlders and rocky 
spots are found within f mile from shore. There are several dangerous 
ledges running north and south, a mile from shore, off Forest Bay. At 
Elm Creek a dangerous spit extends- NE. f mile. Rocky spots are found 
from here on to Indian Creek J mile off shore. From Indian Creek to 
Fort Gratiot light the coast can generally be approached to i mile, except- 
ing f mile NE. of Bnrchville, where there is a detached rocky shoal with 
17 feet over it. 

DANGERS— CANADIAN SHORE. 

Detour Reef, f mile SE. by E. i E. (S. 59° 04' E.) from Point Detour 
lighthouse is marked by a buoy. There are several shoals off the SW. 
point of Fair Island and between it and the buoy. The south shore of 
Drummond Island should be given a berth of at least a mile as there are 
many detached shoals. 

Magnetic Beefs lie in the western entrance to the Strait of Mississauga. 
There is a detached rock on the eastern side of the entrance on a line 
joining the south point of Cockburn Island and the west point of Green 
Island 2J (2f) miles from the latter. Reefs extend from Green Island to 
Grand Manitoulin Island. 

Duck Islands. — Reefs extend for over a mile to the southward from 
the southern ends of Great Duck and Outer Duck islands. There is a 
detached reef f mile north of Great Duck Island. 

Middle Duck Island is surrounded by reefs. Inner Duck Island is 
also surrounded by reefs and from its northern end reefs extend almost to 
Grand Manitoulin Island. 

Grand Manitoulin Island. — There are several detached reefs off the 
southern part of this island, a mile off shore. 

Michael Point has a long, narrow reef extending westward for over 2 
(2J) miles. The bight between Michael and Walker points is filled with 
reefs which extend IJ (If) miles offshore. 

Owen Channel is blocked by shoals. 

Fitz William Channel, between Fitz William and Yeo islands, has a 
12-foot shoal in mid-channel. 

Main Channel into Georgian Bay. — There are several shoals just 
within the entrance, for a full description of which see supplement. 



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18 LAKE HURON — WEST SHORE. 

Bad Neighbor Bock, with 3 feet qf water over it^ lies almost in mid- 
diannel between Yeo aind Cove islands. Two small patches of 11 feet lie 
SW. 200, and S. by W. 400 yards from the rock. The south end of the 
shoal is marked by a black spar buoy. 

The channel between Cove Island and Cape Hurd is almost closed by 
reefs extending northward from the cape; a long reef extending westward 
from Russel Island and southwestward from Cove Island. 
% From Gape Hurd to Chantry Island the coast is rocky, and north of 
Lyal Island should not be approached within 2 (2 J) miles; south of Lyai 
Island, in the neighborhood of the Ghegheto Islands, a much wider berth 
should be given the shore. The coast continues the same rocky character 
to Point Clark. A reef extends westward from Point Clark 1^ (If) miles, 
and 3 (3 J) miles south of Point Clark is a similar reef. 

From Point Clark to Cape Ipperwash the coast is less dangerous and 
can be approached to f mile. 

At Cape Ipperwash a dangerous ledge extends northward 1 J (If) miles, 
and between Cape Ipperwash and Point Harris are bowlders and rooky 
spots within a mile of the shore. 

From Point Harris to the St. Clair Biver the coast is bold and may 
be approached to J mile. 

THE COAST. 

The north shore of the lake from Point Detour westward is described in 
Chapter I, Straits of Mackinac. The routes east, west, and south from 
Point Detour are given in the same chapter, as also is a description of 
Cheboygan and the routes from it. 

WEST SHORE. 

From Cheboygan to the NE. point of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan 
the coast trends ESE. for 8f (10) miles, and can be approached to f mile. 
The coast then changes direction to SE. by S. for 6 J (7^) miles to the NW. 
point of 

Hammond Bay, which is 5J (6) miles wide between its NW. point and 
Forty Mile Point, and If (2) miles long. There are no dangers, and it 
aflfords shelter from all winds from east to NW. by way of south. The 
Oqueoc River empties into this bay. There is a 

Life-Saving Station at Forty Mile Point. 

From Forty Mile Point the coast trends east 5 J (6) miles and SE. 5 J (6) 
miles to the mouth of the Trout River, eastward of which is 

Bogers City. — This is an open roadstead. There are three piers, 500 
feet apart, at which wharfage is charged at the rate of 50 cents per ton. 
There are no tugs or pilots. 

Display Station. — The United States Weather Bureau has a special 
Display Station at Rogers City. 



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PRESQDE ILE PENINSULA AND HARBOR. 19 

Directions. — ^The center wharf has the best water. Bring this wharf 
to bear WSW. J W. (S. 73° 07' W.) and run in for it. 
. Four miles eastward of Rogers City is the mouth of the Swan River, 
Mvhich offers shelter for small craft in all southerly winds, and just beyond 
is Adams Point, where the coast again trends southwestward to the Pen- 
insula of Presque He. One mile SE. of Adams Point is a 4-foot shoal. 

Presqne lie Peninsula is 1 J (1 J) miles long NW. by N. and SE. by 8. 
Shoals extend from both sides of the peninsula for over ^ mile, and nearly 
^ mile east of the old light tower, on the south point of the island, are only 
12 feet of water. The bay westward of Presque He affords shelter from 
southerly winds, but the bottom is of rock. Near the north end of the 
peninsula is a 

Light. — A fixed white light, visible 17 J (19f) miles in clear weather, 
near the north end of the peninsula, is shown 123 feet above the lake level 
from a conical white tower 100 feet high, connected with a yellow dwell- 
ing by a covered way. 

It marks the turning point when bound through the Straits of Mackinac. 

Fog Signal. — A 10-inch steam whistle, giving blasts of 5 seconds, fol- 
lowed by silent intervals of 25 seconds. 

The fog-signal house is on the beach J mile N. by W. of the light. 

Presqne He Harbor, south of the peninsula, forms a snug anchorage for 
small vessels. A bar with 14 feet, greatest depth, closes the harbor ; inside 
the bar, in the center of the harbor, is a space ^ mile in diameter of 20 feet 
depth ; the rest of the bay is shoal. 

Shoal.— There is a 9-foot shoal 1,000 yards E. } S. (S. 81° 33' E.) 
from the old light tower. 

This shoal is surrounded by 15 feet of water, and the same depth extends 
southeastward 200 yards. 

Range Lights.— Two fixed white lights visible (front) 9i (lOf) and 
(rear) Hi (13) miles. 

The front light tower, white, is on the west shore of the harbor, and the 
light is shown 18 feet above the lake level. 

The rear light is 36 feet above the lake level, on a white dwelling 1,000 
feet W. f N. (N. 86° 46' W.) from the front light. 

Directions. — When in a depth of 7 fathoms, come on the range W. 
I N. (N. 85° 46' W.) and run in. This will take a vessel across the bar 
in the deepest (14 feet) water. When the old lighthouse bears NNE. (N. 
22° 30' E.) haul a short distance to the southward or northward of the 
range and anchor in 3 or 3^ fathoms of water. The anchorage is good in 
any weather. 

To the southeastward of Presque He Harbor is a small bight with several 
shoals of 5 feet and less ; the most outlying, 5 feet, is 500 yards north of 
the south point of this bight, and 1,200 yards off shore. As it lies almost 



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20 LAKE HURON — WEST SHORE. 

on the edge of the 4*fathom curve, vessels should give the looalitj a wide 
berth. 

From this bight the coast continues SE. 4 miles to False Presque He 
and can be approached to ^ mile^ as also can the east and south coasts of 
False Presque He. A spit extends ENE. from the south point of the 
island 1,200 yards, and another 8SE. 500 yards. Just south of False 
Presque Tie is 

False Presque lie Harbor. — ^The head of this harbor extends inland f 
mile, but is filled with flats; flats also extend one (1|) mile southeastward 
and J mile off shore from the SW. point of the harbor. Three hundred 
yards SE. from the end of this spit is an extensive outlying shoal with a 
least depth of 12 feet. East of the south end of this shoal nearly 600 
yards, is a detached spot of 17 feet, and south of the shoal 300 yards is a 
detached spot of 16 feet. 

All of these shoals are avoided by keeping within J mile of the north 
shore of the harbor. 

Directions. — Run in on a NW. course, keeping J mile from the north 
shore of the harbor, and anchor, in about 3 fathoms, or smaller craft will 
find a snug berth farther in, in 2^ fathoms. Good shelter is found here 
from all winds excepting those between south and east. 

Middle Island lies 1 J miles off shore, 4 J (5) miles SE. of False Presque 
He Harbor. It is a mile long NW. and SE., and nearly f mile NE. and 
SW. A spit extends southward from the SE. point of the island for over 
J mile, and the island is generally surrounded by shoals to the distance of 
J mile, except the north and NE. sides, which are rather more steep-to. 

Life-Savii^ Station is on the NW. point of the island. 

Display Station.— The United States Weather Bureau has a special 
display station on Middle Island. 

Shoals. — Midway between Middle Island and the mainland is an 
extensive shoal with a least depth of 6 feet, and S W. of the island are several 
patches of 16 and 17 feet. 

ESE. 1,000 yards from the SE. point of the island is a 3-foot patch 
in the middle of an extensive shoal, the NE. point of which is a mile 
eastward of the south point of the island. Discolored water marks this 
shoal in calm, and breakers in rough weather. The shoal' is marked on 
its eastern edge by a 

Bnoy. — A second-class nun buoy, painted red, and moored in 20 feet of 
water. 

Anchorage.— The island affords a lee in all winds and there is good 
holding ground under the south side of the island. 

Directions.— To anchor between the island and the mainland, vessels 
from the northward must pass i mile outside of the buoy and when it is 
in range with the SE. point of the island haul up to WSW. f W. (S. 



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PRESQUE ILE HARBOR — THUNDER BAY. 21 

76° 56' W.) and when the west point of the island bears N. by W. (N. 
11° 15' W.) haul up for it and anchor in 4 or 4 J fathoms about J mile 
from the island. 

The Ooast from Presque lie Harbor to North Point trends southwesterly 
14f (17) miles. North of North Point the shore trends to the westward, 
forming a large bight filled with a flat and shoals. In this bight are 
Bond and Crooked islands, and several smaller ones. The flat extends 
eastward 3 miles ; on the northern part of it is Gull Island, | mile south 
of Gull Island is Sugar Island, and on the eastern edge of the flat is Thun- 
der Bay Island, one (1^) mile long NW. and SE., with an average breadth 
of ^ mile. The flat continues 300 yards southeastward from the SE. point 
of th^»island. Near the SE« part of the island is a 

Light. — ^A flashing white light every 90 seconds, visible 13^ (16J) 
miles in clear weather, is shown 69 feet above the lake level, from a con- 
ical, yellow tower, connected with a yellow dwelling by a covered way. 

Fog SignaL — A 10-inch steam whistle gives a blast of 8 seconds dura- 
tion, followed by a silent interval of 10 seconds, then a blast of 2 seconds 
and a silent interval of 40 seconds. 

The fog-signal-house is SSE. of the lighthouse. 

Wreck. — ^A wreck, steamer D. M. Wilson, which is an obstruction to 
navigation, lies 1| (2) miles NK from Thunder Bay Island light. Lights 
will be hung on the spars when weather permits. 

Life-Saving Station.— The Life-Saving Station is on the SW. point of 
the island } mile from the lighthouse. 

Display Station.— -The United States Weather Bureau has a special 
display station on the island. 

Anchorages. — Good anchorage, clay and sand, is found north of Gull 
Island. The harbor between Thunder Bay and Sugar islands, 13 feet of 
water, good holding ground, gives protection from all winds. SW. of 
Thunder Bay Island and south of Sugar Island the anchorage is not good, 
the bottom being rocky. 

Thunder Bay. — Between North and South points the bay is 8J (10) 
miles wide, and from this line in to the mouth of Thunder Bay Eiver, is 
nearly the same distance. The north shore is safe to approach to J mile, 
excepting south of North Point where the shoals extend one ( 1 J) mile SSE., 
the extreme south end being marked by a 

Buoy. — A second-class can buoy, painted red, is moored in 18 feet of 
water one (li) mile S. by E. f E. (S. 18° 16' E.) from North Point. It 
marks the extreme end of the shoal extending southeasterly from North 
Point. Vessels must pass to the southward of this buoy. 

On the western and southern shores of the bay, shoals and flats extend 
some distance from the various points and islands, but offer no obstacle to 
safe navigation if vessels keep within 2 J (2f ) miles of the northern shore. 



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22 LAKE HURON WEST SHORE. 

Grass Island, f mile off shore, lies on a rocky flat at the head of the 
bay, nearly 2 miles northward of Partridge Point. Three-fourths mile 
and one (1 J) mile respectively SE. of Grass Island are shoal patches of 13 
and 10 feet, but they offer no obstacle to navigation if the northern shore 
of the bay be kept aboard. 

Partridge Point extends from the shore one (1^) mile and is ^ mile 
broad. South of the point is a bight 1 J (IJ) miles long and wide, but 
filled with a flat which extends out to and surrounds Sulphur Island. 
The flat continues northward from Sulphur Island f mile and then 
curves to the NW., almost joining the spit extending ^ mile from Part- 
ridge Point. On this flat is a 5-foot spot, f mile N. by E. from the north 
point of Sulphur Island. East of this point one (1^) mile is a small 13- 
foot shoal which is the N W. point of a narrow detached shoal extending 
f mile, with 14 feet on the southeastern end. 

South of this spot J mile is a small 17-foot patch. 

Between the shoal and Sulphur Island is a detached 14-foot patch. 

The whole south shore of Thunder Bay is filled with a rocky flat 
extending northward from South Point toward Bird and Scare Crow, 
islands nearly 3 miles ; the edge of the flat J mile north of Scare Crow 
Island trends W. by N. to the western shore of the bay, passing 1 J (If) 
miles outside of Hard Wood Point and one (1 J) mileoutside of Devil River. 
From South Point a rocky spit extends northeastward a mile, and another 
rocky, spit eastward the same distance. 

Alpena. — Thunder Bay Eiver empties into the head of Thunder Bay, 
and at the mouth of the river is Alpena. This town is in the collection 
district of Huron and the nearest port of entry is Port Huron, Michigan. 

Improvements. — ^The general project calls for a channel 16 feet deep 
between the 16-foot curve and a point in the river a mile above its mouth ; 
the width varying from 200 feet at the outer end to 50 feet above. Bed 
rock was found | mile above the mouth of the river and the improve- 
ments were not carried farther than this point. The channel has shoaled 
at one place to 14 feet. 

Alpena Light. — A fixed red light visible 11^ (13) miles in clear 
weather is shown 53 feet above the lake level, from a square, brown, 
pyramidal, open framework tower, the upper part inclosed. 

The light tower is on the north side of the entrance to Thunder Bay 
River, on a crib 57 feet east of, and in a line with, Gilchrist Wharf. 

Fog Signal. — A bell struck by machinery every 10 seconds. 

Signal Station. — There is a signal station two blocks NW. of the 
lighthouse. 

Display Station. — The United States Weather Bureau has a r^ular 
Display Station at Alpena. 



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ALPENA — DIRECTIONS — ROUTES. 23 

Direction&< for Entering. — ^From the Northward. — Round Thunder 
Bay Island SE. point at a distance of ^ mile, then SW. by W. f W. 
(S. 63° 16' W.) 3 J (3f ) miles, until the buoy off North Point bears north, 
distant J mile, or the extreme eastern part of North Point, N. by W. J 
W. (N. 16° 52' W.) distant 1 J (IJ) miles, thence NW. by W. i W. (N. 
66° 05' W.) 7J (8f ) miles will bring a vessel J mile off Thunder Bay 
River light. 

From the Southward. — When east of South Point 4J (5) miles, a N W. 
I N. (N. 39° 22' W.) course 13f (15f) miles will bring a vessel J mile off 
Thunder Bay River light. 

Alpena to Presqne He, Detour Passage and Georgian Bay.— 
Bring Thunder Bay River light astern bearing NW. by W. i W. (N. 
66° 05' W.) and steer SE. by E. | E. (S. 66° 05' E.) 7^ (8f) miles, until 
the buoy off North Point bears north, distant J mile; change course to 
NE. by E. f E. (N. 63° 16' E.) for 6 (7) miles, passing J mile off the SE. 
point of Thunder Bay Island; diange course to NNW. | W. (N. 30° 56' 
W.) for 23J (27J) miles, which will bring a vessel abeam of Presque He 
lighthouse, distant 4 (4^) miles. (Run in on range if desirous of making 
this harbor.) The same course continued for 38 (43|) miles will bring a 
vessel in range with Point Detour lighthouse and buoy, J mile from the 
buoy. 

If wishing to make Georgian Bay : when J mile SE. of the SE. point of 
Thunder Bay Island, change course to ENE. J E. (N. 73° 7' E.) for 63J 
(73) miles. This will bring a vessel J mile north of Gig Point, Cove Island. 

Alpena to Saginaw River, Sand Beach, and St. Olair River. — 
Bring Thunder Bay River light astern, bearing NW. J N. (N. 39° 22' 
W-) and steer SE. J S. (S. 39° 22' W.) for 13f (15f) miles. This will 
bring a vessel with South Point bearing west 4J (5) miles. 

Bound to Saginaw River, change course to south for 23 (26|) miles; 
this will bring a vessel east of Au Sable light 4| (5 J) miles; change 
course to SSW. ^ W. (S. 32° 20' W.) for 51 (58|) miles, passing between 
the buoys NW. of Charity Island and the buoy SE. of Gravelly Point. 
This will bring a vessel off Saginaw River. For entering see special 
directions. 

Bound to Sand Beach and St. Clair River. — When east of South 
Point 4J (5) miles, shape a course SSE. J E. (S. 23° 54' E.) for 69 (79^) 
miles, which should bring a vessel east of Sand Beach Harbor 4 (4J) miles. 
(If desirous of entering this harbor run in for the main entrance to the 
harbor.) When east of Sand Beach Harbor change course to S. f E. (S. 8° 
26' E.) for 50f (58J) miles, which will bring a vessel 2 (2J) miles, NE. by 
E. J E. (N. 59° 03' E.) from Fort Gratiot lighthouse and close to the 
Canadian shore. 

For entering the river see special directions. 



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24 . LAKE HURON — WEST SHORE. 

Ooast. — Between South Point and Black River 4J (5) miles to the 
southward the shore should not be approached within If (2) miles. 

Black River Island^ a mile NE. of Black River, is surrounded with 
shoals which extend f mile ENE. from the island connecting it with the 
shore. Rocky spots extend one (1 J) mile eastward from Black River. 

Display Station.— The United States Weather Bureau has a special 
Display Station at Black River. 

The shore continues rocky to Alcona, 3J (4) miles to the southward. 
Here the coastline bends to the westward, forming a shallow bight between 
Alcona and Sturgeon Point, 3 J (4) miles SSE. of Alcona. 

A spit extends nearly a mile ENE. from Sturgeon Point and on the 
point is a 

Light. — A fixed white light, visible 14 (16) miles in clear weather is 
exhibited 69 feet above the lake level, from a conical white tower con- 
nected by a covered way with a dwelling. 

The lighthouse is on the easternmost point between Thunder and 
Saginaw bays. 

Idfe-Saviiig Station.— The station is 75 yards south of the lighthouse. 

Coast. — ^At Sturgeon Point the co.ast changes its direction to a little 
west of south and continues its rocky character. Harrisville is 3^ (4) 
miles from Sturgeon Point an<I Spring Mills If (2) miles beyond. Between 
these pldces a rocky shoal extends off shore for a mile. Greenbush is 3J 

(4) miles south of Spring Mills and from here to Au Sable light, a dis- 
tance of 10 (12J) miles, the shore continues its rocky character. Six (7) 
miles northward of Au Sable River there is a 9-foot spot a mile off shore. 

Au Sable, at the mouth of the Au Sable River, is in the collection 
district of Huron, and Port Huron, Michigan, is the nearest port of entry. 

Improvements. — June 30, 1890, the river had been so far improved that 
there was a 10-foot channel from the mouth of the river to Au Sable 
swing bridge, with a width of 120 feet across the bar. The improve- 
ment is but temporary. The shipments from the port are principally made 
from private piers built into the lake, entirely outside of the harbor. 

Light. — A fixed red light, visible 8J (9f ) miles in clear weather, is 
exhibited 32 feet above the lake level, from a square, brown, pyramidal, 
open framework tower, upper part inclosed. There is an elevated walk 
from the lighthouse to the shore. 

The tower is on the outer end of the north pier, at the mouth of the 
river. 

Coast. — ^The shore continues its southerly direction, from Au Sable, 4J 

(5) miles to Point au Sable. Shoals surround this point to a distance of f 
mile and it is best to keep at least IJ (IJ) miles offshore. At Point au 
Sable the coast bends more, to the westward to Tawas (Ottawa) Point, 6f 



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TAWAS BAY ^DIRECTIONS. 25 

(7|) miles 8W. of Point au Sable. Tawas Point has a sand spit extending 
from it for nearly a mile southwesterly and westerly. The SW. and NW. 
ends of this spit are marked by 

Buoys. — A second-class nun buoy, painted red, is moored in 33 feet of, 
water 1| statute miles SW. f W. (S. 53° 26' W.) of Tawas (Ottawa) Point. 
It is placed On the extreme SW. point of the shoal. Vessels must not 
pass inside of this buoy. 

A 25-foot spar buoy, painted red, is moored in 16 feet of water IJ 
statute miles N. by E. (N. 11° 15' E.) of Tawas Point buoy and marks 
the N W. point of the shoal. 

Light. — An intermittent white light with red sector. The light is fixed 
for 25 seconds, followed by an eclipse of 5 seconds. The light shows red 
over the flat for 8!0°, from bearing NE. to bearing SE., and white the 
remaining 270°. The light is visible in clear weather 14 (16) miles and is 
exhibited 70J feet above the lake level, from a conical, white tower, con- 
nected with a red dwelling by a covered way. The lighthouse is near the 
SW. end of Tawas Point. 

Life-Sayi2ig Station is 1,100 yards NE. by E. from the lighthouse. 

Tawas Bay is protected by Tawas Point, a narrow peninsula projecting 
over a mile southwesterly from the mainland. It is 3J (4) miles wide 
between Tawas Point and the shore west of the point, and If (2) miles 
long northwesterly from this line. 

The available anchorage grounds are contracted to a space a little over 
a mile in wi<lth by the flats extending from the point and the western 
shore of the bay. There are no dangers outside the flats and the bottom 
is sand and clay. The bay offers secure anchorage in all winds excepting 
those from the south. 

Tawas and East Tawas are on the western shore of the bay. 

Display Station. — ^There is a special Display Station of the United States 
Weather Bureau at East Tawas. 

Directions. — ^From the Northward or Westward steer to the SW. or 
west until Tawas lighthouse bears north 1 J (IJ) miles, when change course 
to NW. by W. i W. (N. 67° 39' W.) for the mill at Tawas. Run in on 
this course passing southward of Tawas Point buoy, until Tawas lighthouse 
bears E. J N. (N. 84° 22' E.) when change course to NE. f E. (N. 52° 01' E.) 
and run into the harbor and anchor in 3^ fathoms of water. 

From the Southward. — Steer north, and bring the lighthouse on Tawas 
Point to bear E. J N. (N. 84° 22' E.) 1} (2) miles, when proceed as above. 

Ooast. — From Tawas Bay to Gravelly Point the coast trends southerly 

for 13 (15) miles; the shore should not be approached within one (IJ) 

mile as rocky flats extend off^ in places for nearly that distance, especially 

off Mason Creek and Alabaster where the shoals are rather more o£3ying. 

10988 3 

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26 LAKE HURON — ^WEST SHORE. 

There are only 6 feet of water f mile SE. of Whitestone Point and a 
detached 16-foot shoal 1 J (1 J) miles south of it and a little over a mile off 
shore. 

Gravelly Point, the inner western point of entrance to Saginaw Bay 
projects some distance from the mainland southeasterly. It continues in 
the same direction for 2J (2J) miles as a sand spit. There are 11 feet of 
water IJ (If) miles SE. of the point and 16 feet at the SE, extreme of the 
spit. South of the end of the spit a short distance is a 17-foot detached 
patch. The spit is marked by a 

Buoy. — A first-class nun buoy, painted red, is moored in 20 feet of 
water 2^ (2J) miles SE. by E. (S. 56° 15' E.) of Gravelly Point and 
marks the extreme point of the shoal. 

Vessels must not attempt to pass between this buoy and the shore. 

Saginaw Bay. — Between the outer points of the entrance, Point au 
Sable and Pointe aux Barques, the bay is 22 (25J) miles wide'. It is con- 
tracted to 14 (16) miles between Gravelly and Oak points, but the 
entrance channel proper, between Gravelly Point and Charity Island, is 
only 2J (2f ) miles wide between the shoals. 

Wert Shore.— The head of the bight within Gravelly Point is filled 
with shoals; the 3-fathom curve is nearly a mile eastward of Point aux 
Gres, and just within it, east of the point is a 7-foot patch ; from this patch 
the 3-lathom curve trends SW. by S. to the head of the bay. Outside 
the curve there are no dangers. 

The Aux Gres, Rifle, Pine, Saginaw, and Pinconning rivers empty into 
Saginaw Bay on its western shore. 

Eart Shore. — The whole southern and eastern side of Saginaw bay, to 
Sand Point, is filled by a flat which extends from the eastern shore 7 (8) 
miles. The flat extends northward from Sand Point to Little Charity and 
Charity islands. It surrounds these islands and extends in all directions 
from the Charity islands for If (2) miles. 

This flat has on it many rocky shoals and closes the eastern entrance to 
the bay. Vessels should not attempt to enter the bay southward of the 
islands. On the eastern shore are Sabewaing and Pigeon rivers, and the 
towns of Sabewaing, Bayport, Caseville, Port Crescent, and Port Austin. 

The northwestern edge of the flat is marked by a 

Buoy. — A second-class can buoy, painted black, is moored, in 17 feet of 
water, 2i (2^) miles NW. by W. i W. (N. 59^ 3' W.) of Charity Island 
lighthouse. It marks the NW. end of the shoal extending from Charity 
Island. 

Charity Island Light.— A fixed white light, visible 12^ (14) miles in 
clear weather is exhibited 45 feet above the lake level, from a conical, 
white tower, connecteiJ with a dwelling by a covered way. 

Tlie lighthouse is on the N W. point of Charity Island. 



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SAGINAW RIVER. 27 

Approaching Saginaw Bay from the Sonthward. — Vessels must pass 
at least a mile to the northward of Port Austip light, then steer W. J S. 
(8. 84° 22' W.) 22i (25^) miles, which will lead to the nprthward of 
Charity Island buoy, being careful on approaching it to keep it well open 
on the port bow to avoid the shoal extending IJ (If) miles northward 
from Charity Island lighthouse. Vessels should not pass southward of 
the island. After passing the buoy steer SW. by 8. (g. 33° 46' W.) for 
Saginaw River, leaving Gravelly Point buoy on the starboard hand. 

Shoal. — A shoal with 16 and 17 feet of water over it, and extending 
east and west nearly a mile, lies 4 (4f ) miles NNE, of the entrance to 
Saginaw River, and nearly a mile outside the 3-fathom curve. 

Saginaw River with its tributaries drains a territory of some 6,800 
square miles. The river proper has a length of 1 9 (22) miles at which 
distance from the mouth the Tittabawassee and Shiawassee unite to form 
the main stream. The cities of East and West Saginaw are built on the 
upper end of the river, and Bay City near the mouth. The river has a 
large volume and at times a strong current. 

Xmprovements.T— Prior to improvements the entrance was obstructed by 
an extended bar in Saginaw Bay a mile from shore and ^ mile across 
between the 10-foot contours, with a minimum depth of 9 feet. 

January 1, 1894, the channel across the outer bar had been dredged to 
a depth of 14 feet, and a width of 200 feet, from the mouth of the river 
to the 14-foot curve. It is not safe for vessels drawing over 13 feet to 
cross the bar. It is proposed to further increase this depth to 16 feet» 
The cut is marked by 

Buoys. — ^The entrance to the channel is marked by two buoys, a black 
16-foot spar buoy. No. 1, in 13 feet, on the east side, and a red nun buoy. 
No. 2, in 13 feet, on the west side. S. } W. 660 yards is a black spar 
buoy, No. 3, in 11 feet of water on the east bank, and opposite on the 
west* bank, in 11 feet of water, is a red spar buoy, No. 4. Beyond these at 
intervals of 660 yards, the spar buoys are in pairs, black on the east bank 
and red on the west bank, all in 11 feet of water, the black buoys bearing 
odd numbers, the red buoys even numbers. Buoys 9 and 10 mark the 
commencement of deep water inside the bar. Buoys 13 and 14 mark the 
mouth of the river and are the last on the course 8. J W. (S. 6° 37' W.) 
A short distance beyond this pair the course is changed to S. by E. ^ E. 
(S. 14° 03' E.) 

Range Lights. — Two fixed red lights visible in clear weather (front) 7^ 
(8 J) and (r«ur) 11 J (13) miles. The front light is shown 37 feet above 
the lake level and the rear light 61 feet. 

The front light tower is at the west entrance point to the Saginaw River. 
It is a square, red, pyramidal, open framework tower, upper part inclosed, 
on a crib. 



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28 LAKE HURON — WEST SHORE. 

The rear light is 2,330 feet 8. J W. (8. 5° 37' W.) from the front light, 
and is shown from a square, yellow tower attached to a dwelling. 

Display Station. — ^The United 8tates Weather Bureau has a special 
Display 8tation at Bay City. 

Directions for Entering. — Bring the lights in range, 8. J W. (8. 6° 
37' W.) when 2J (2 J) miles from the ' front light, and steer in on the 
range, passing between the spar and nun buoys at the entrance to the cut. 
Thes^ buoys are about 2 miles from the front light. Keep on the range 
following the buoys to ^ mile from the front light until Nos. 13 and 14 
are about one point abaft the beam, when change course to 8, by E. J E. 
(8. 14° 03' E.) and keep in mid-channel until off the Bay City dry dock, 
when haul to the south shore to avoid the shoals in mid-channel, opposite 
the slips at McEwan's mill, after which there is no obstruction until the 
Belinda street bridge is reached. 

Saginaw River to Sand Beach and St. Glair River.— When clear of 
the entrance buoys steer NE. by N. (N. 33° 45' E.) 27f (32) miles, when 
Charity Island light will be abeam to starboard distant nearly 3 miles; 
change course to E. J N. (N. 84^ 22' E.) for 22^ (25J) miles, when Port 
Austin light should be abeam, distant about a mile; round this part of the 
coast, keeping it at a distance of 2J (2J) miles until the bell buoy off 
Pointe aux Barques lighthouse is passed, when it can be approached nearer. 

Run in for 8and Beach when off it, if desired. 

When east of 8and Beach Harbor 2J m.iles a 8. | E. (8. 9° 50' E.) 
course for 51 (58|) miles will bring a vessel 2 (2 J) miles NE. by E. J E. 
(N. 59° 03' E.) from Fort Gratiot light and close to the Canadian shore. 
See special directions, for entering the river. 

' From Saginaw River to Detour Passage and Main Entrance to 
Cteorgian Bay. — From Charity Island light abeam to starboard, distant 
2 J (3) miles, a NNE. | E. (N. 32° 20' E.) course for 24 J (28) miles will 
bring a vessel east of Au 8able light 4f (5 J) miles; change course to N. 
J E. (N. 5"^ 37' E.) for 38i (44) miles; a vessel should then be abeam of 
Thunder Bay Island light, distant 2J (3) miles. Continue this course for 
If (2) miles, thence a NNE/f E. (N. 30° 56' E.) course for 62J (Tlf) 
miles should bring a vessel J mile from Point Detour buoy, with the buoy 
in range with the light. This last course passes within 4 (4J) miles of 
Presque He lighthouse, and well outside of a 4-fathom rocky spot 5J (6) 
miles north of Thunder Bay Island light. 

To Hake Georgian Bay.— From off Charity Island buoy a NE. J E. 
(N. 46^ 24' E.) course for 105J (121J) miles will bring a vessel 2J (8) 
miles west of Cove Island light. 8ee special direction in supplement 
for Creorgian Bay. 

' Coast. — ^Between Oak Point and Pointe aux Barques^ 14 (16) miles to 
the ENE. the coast has several indentations, but is generally bordered by 

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'port AUSTIN UGHT — POINTE AUX BARQUES LIGHT. 29 

a rocky flat which extends off shore, ia places 1| (2) miles. Off Port 
Crescent, at the mouth of the Partridge River, the reef is broken and a 
vessel with local knowledge can approach the shore close-to, but off shore 
IJ (If) miles is a narrow detached shoal, least water 5 feet, running noi*th 
and south for over a mile. Midway between Flat Rock Point and Pointe 
aux Barques is Port Austin, an open roadstead, with several piers. 

Pointe aux Barques is surrounded by reefs which extend NW. IJ (IJ) 
miles. N^ar the NW. end is 

Port Austin Beef Light. — A fixed white and flashing red light, fixed 
white for one minute, followed by five consecutive red flashes at intervals 
of 12 seconds during the next minute, visible 14J (16f) miles, is exhibited 
80 feet above the lake level, from a square, white, pyramidal, open frame- 
work tower, upper part inclosed, with brown fog-signal building on a 
high crib. 

The lighthouse is on Port Austin Reef, IJ (1 J) miles from the main- 
land. There is no passage between the light and the mainland, and vessels 
should give the light a berth of J mile. The light is known as Port Austin 
light. 

Fog Signal.— *-A 10-inch steam whistle gives a blast of 7 seconds, fol- 
lowed by a silent interval of 80 seconds. 

Display Station. — ^The United States Weather Bureau has a special 
Display Station at Pointe aux Barques. 

Coast. — Between Pointe aux Barques and Burnt Cabin Point the reef 
is somewhat broken, but it extends off the latter point a mile. It follows 
the coast, extending out from a mile to 1 J miles and at Pointe aux Barques 
lighthouse the edge of the reef is If (2) miles, off shore. Just south of 
Burnt Cabin Point is. a life-saving station and a little beyond is Grind- 
stone City. New River is 2 miles farther SE. and Huron City at the 
mouth of Willow River is one (1 J) mile beyond it. Orion Rock, with 6 
feet of water over it lies one (1 J) mile NW. of Willow River Wharf. 
Two miles SE. of Huron City is 

Pointe aux Barqnes Light. — A flashing white light every 10 seconds, 
visible in clear weather 15 J (17^) miles, is exhibited 89 feet above the 
lake level from a conical tower connected by a covered way with a dwell- 
ing, both white. 

Life-Saving Station is 300 yards south of the lighthouse. 

Buoy. — A first-class bell buoy, painted black, is moored in 33 feet of 
water 2 (2^) miles W. J N. (N. 88° 35' W.) of Pointe aux Barques light- 
house. It marks the reef extending off shore. Vessels must pass outside 
of this bell buoy. 

Ooast. — NNE. one (1 J) mile from Pointe aux Barques lighthouse is an 
8-foot shoal, with deeper water between it and the shore. Between Pointe 
aux Barques and Sand Beach, 14 miles SSE., the reef continues and in 

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m 



LAKE HURON — WEST SHORE. 



places extends oiit for a mile, getierally } mile. Port Hope is halfway, 
to Sand Beach. Halfway between Port Hope and Sand Beach is Forest 
Bay, off which are several dangerous ledges running north and south, a 
mile from shore. 

Sand Beach, a harbor of refuge, is just north of Cranes Point. Thi& 
is the only place of shelter in the vicinity of Pointe aux Barques, an 
exposed and stormy locality, with no other harbor or safe anchorage for 
69 J (80) miles along a rocky and dangerous coast. The entire Lake Huron 
traffic passes within sight of this harbor. This includes all through traffic 
to and from lakes Superior and Michigan. 

Improvements. — As constructed, the harbor works are built in three 
sections, each consisting of heavy timber cribs, filled with stone. The 
west pier incloses the harbor on the north shore and, starting in shallow 
water 750 feet from shore, extends ESE. 1,503 feet with a width increas- 
ing from 19 to 26 feet. 

The main pier extends NW. and SE. 4,675 feet, with a uniform width 
of 38 feet. The south pier extends north and south 1,956 feet, with a 
width varying from 26 to 18 feet, and protects the harbor from the eastward. 

The north entrance is 300 feet wide, but is not safe for vessels drawing 
over 15 feet. , The main entrance is 600 feet wide and has a depth (1894) 
of 21 feet. It is proposed to dredge the north entrance to the same depth. 

Directions. — ^Anchorage. — ^The main entrance is the one commonly 
used by all vessels. The southern margin of it is bordered by a rocky 
bottom of insufficient depth. There is very limited holding ground inside 
the harbor, most of the bottom being rocky. Steamers go directly to the 
main pier and make fast; sailing vessels either make fast to the pier or 
anchor on the west side, south of the west pier, where there is limited 
holding ground. 

lafe-Saviilg Station. — There is a railroad pier in the harbor, at the 
inner end of which is a life-saving station. 

Display Station. — ^The United States Weather Bureau has a special 
Display Station at Sand Beach. 

SAND BEACH LIGHTS. 

North Entrance.— East Light, a fixed white light, visible 12f {l^) 
miles in clear weather, is exhibited 42 feet above the lake level, from a 
white, pyramidal, open framework tower, upper part inclosed, on the end of 
the breakwater, east side of the north entrance to the harbor. 

West Light. — A fixed red light, visible about 9^ (11) miles in clear 
weather, is shown 27J feet above the lake level from a skeleton tripod on 
the end of the breakwater, west side of the north entrance to the harbor. 

These lights mark the northern entrance to the Harbor of Refuge. 



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SAND BEACH LAKEPORT. 31 

Blain (East) Entrance.— North (Main) Light. — A flashing light^ alter- 
nately red and white every 5 seconds, visible 13 (14f) miles in clear 
weather, is exhibited 54J feet above the lake level from a conical, brown 
tower, surmounted by a black lantern. 

The lighthouse, with brown fog-signal house, is on a rectangular crib 
jiist inside the north side of east entrance to the harbor. 

Fog Signal. — A 10-inch steam whistle gives a blast of 5 seconds dura- 
tion, followed by a silent interval of 25 seconds. 

South Light. — A fixed red light, visible 9 J (11) miles in clear weather, 
is exhibited 27 J feet above the lake level from a skeleton tripod on the 
end of the breakwater, south side of the east entrance to the harbor. 

These lights mark the eastern or main entrance to the Harbor of Refuge. 

Ooast. — From Cranes Point to the St. Clair Eiver the coast trends S. 
by E. nearly 43 J (50) miles, and is fronted by rocky shoals the whole dis- * 
tance, but can be safely approached anywhere to a mile. 

Barnetsville is a mile southward of Cranes Point, and Elm Creek 4J . 
(5J) miles farther on. 

At Elm Creek a dangerous spit extends from the shore NE. f mile. 

White Rock Town is 1| (2) miles south from Elm Creek. North | mile 
from the end of the wharf at White Rock Point is a rock out of water, 
known as White Rock. A ledge with 4 or 6 feet of water over it extends 
8E. 300 yards from the rock. Forestville is halfway between White 
Rock Point and Indian Creek, 7| (9) mil^ to the southward. Rocky 
spots are found along this stretch of the coast | mile offshore. Richmond- 
ville is a short distance southward of Indian Creek. From here to Port 
Sanilac, 8f (10) miles farther south, the coast continues its rocky character, 
but can be approached somewhat nearer than that farther north. Picnic 
Point, 2f (3J) miles north of Port Sanilac, is the south point of Fools 
Bay, a slight, shallo^^r indentation in the coast, with Forester at its north- 
ern end. 

At Port Sanilac is a 

Light. — A fixed red light, visible 11^ (13) miles, is exhibited 69 feet 
above the lake level, from an octagonal, pyramidal white tower, connected 
by a covered way with a red dwelling. 

From Port Sanilac to Lexington, 10 (llj) miles to the southward, the 
coast continues in the same direction and of the same general character. 
At Burchville, 7 miles beyond Lexington, there is a detached rocky spot 
of 17 feet, I mile NE. of the town and nearly the same distance off 
shore. At Lakeport, 3 (3^) miles south of Burchville, the coast changes 
its direction slightly to the eastward and trends SSE, for 7| (9) miles to 
the west entrance point of the St. Clair River. 

North of this point, IJ (If) miles and If (2) miles, are 16 and 17 foot 
shoals I mile off shore. 

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32 LAKE HURON — WEST SHORE. 

Shoals. — Corsica Shoal with 16 feet least water over it, Harlem Shoal 
with 17 feet, and Northwest Shoal with 16 feet lie off the entrance to St. 
Clair River. 

LaJce Huron laghtvessel.— A fixed white light, visible 11} (13|) miles, 
is shown 40 feet above the lake level from the fore masthead. 

The vessel has two masts, is schooner rigged, and has no bowsprit. 
There is a circular black cage-work day mark at the fore masthead and a 
small black smokestack and fog signal between the masts. The hull is 
straw color, with '* Lake Huron " in large black letters on each side and 
"No. 61 '' on each bow. 

The vessel is moored 1^ (If) miles N. by E. } E. (N. 19° 41' E.) 
from Fort Gratiot lighthouse, in 20 feet of water. 

Fog Signal. — A 6-inch steam whistle gives a blast of 2 seconds dura- 
tion, followed by a silent interval of 10 seconds. If the whistle is dis- 
abled, a bell will be rung by hand. 

Fort Oratiot Light.* — A fixed and flashing white light, flash every one 
minute, is exhibited 82 feet above the lake level from a conical white tower, 
with a red dwelling detached, on the western entrance point to St. Clair 
River. The light is visible 14| (17) miles in clear weather. 

Fog Signal. — An 8-inch steam whistle sounds a blast of 8 seconds 
duration, followed by a silent interval of 62 seconds. The fog-signal 
building is in front of the light station. 

A description of and directions for St. Clair River is given in the fol- 
lowing chapter. 

St. Clair River to Lake Michigan and Detour Passage. — After 
leaving the river, on the Fori Gratiot range, bring the lighthouse to bear 
SW. i S. (S. 42° 11' W.) and steer ENE. J E. (N. 70° 18' E.) 1 (IJ) 
miles; this leads out in the best water and south of all shoals off the 
entrance to the river. When 2 (2 J) miles from the light change course to 
N. f W. (N. 8° 26' W.) for 50| (58 J) miles; this will bring a vessel east 
of Sand Beach 3f (4 J) miles; here change course to NW. | W. (N. 18° 
16' W.) for 78 (89f ) miles, when Thunder Bay Island light will be abeam, 
distant 3 J (Sf) miles; change course to NNW. j W. (N. 30° 56' W.) for 
62J (71f) miles. This will bring a vessel J mile oflF Point Detour buoy 
with the buoy and light in range. 

This course passes within 4 (4 J) miles of Presque lie lighthouse and, if 
desirous of going into Lake Michigan, change course to the westward 
when this light is abeam and follow the coast around to the Straits of 
Mackinac, keeping 4 or 5 miles oif shore. 

St. Clair River to Georgian Bay.— When 2 (2J) miles NE. by E. J 
E. (N. 59° 03' E.) from Fort Gratiot lighthouse set course N. | E. (N. 9° 
50' E.) for 142 (163 J) miles. This will bring a vessel west of Cove 

* An extensive 15-foot shoal, with 22 feet around it, lies 2}4 (2/5) miles N. by E. (N. 11° 16' B.) from this light. 



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CANADIAN SHORE. 33 

Island light, distant 2| (3) miles. See directions in supplement, for 
Georgian Bay. 

, CANADIAN SHORE. 

Detour Passage and Port OoIIier are described in Chapter III of Lake 
Superior. Drummond Island belongs to the United States ; Cockburn and 
Grand Manitoulin islands to Canada. These islands form the eastern part 
of the northern shore of Lake Huron. The southern shores of these 
islands have not been surveyed and no description can be given of them. 

Vessels should give this whole coast a wide berth. 

False Detour Channel, nearly 17 J (20) miles east of Detour Passage, 
is 6 (7) miles long NE. by N. and SW. Jby S., with an average width of 
If (2) miles. Apparently there are no dangers if a mid-channel course 
be kept. 

Strait of BUssissaugay the next passage east, is a little longer and 
broader than False Detour Channel and takes a N. by E. J E. direction. 
This passage is also apparently clear in mid-channel. 

At the western entrance to the strait off the southeastern side of Cock- 
burn Island are the Magnetic Reefs. They extend 2J (2J) miles south- 
easterly frdm the south point of Cockburn Island and 2J (3) miles into 
the strait. 

The southeastern entrance point to the strait is marked by 

Mississauga Light.-— A fixed white light, visible 13 (15) miles in clear 
weather, is exhibited 46 feet above the lake level from a white, square 
tower on the SW. point of Grand Manitoulin Island. It serves as a guide 
through the strait. 

Fog Signal. — A steam wild-cat whistle gives a blast of 8 seconds dura- 
tion, followed by a silent interval of 2 minutes. The pitch of the whistle 
varies during the blast. 

Shoals.— At the eastern entrance to the strait, S. by E. | E. (S. 19° 41' 
E.), 3 (3J) miles from the light, is a detached rock and shoal. 

Green Island, a little farther eastward, is connected with Manitoulin 
Island by shoals. 

Duck Islands, five in number, extend south from the coast of Mani- 
toulin Island 12 (13|) miles. The Inner Duck Island is surrounded by 
reefs, which extend northward almost to Manitoulin Island. Reefs extend 
off the north shore of the Western Duck. Middle Duck is surrounded by 
reefs. Reefs extend off the eastern edge of Outer Duck and 1 J (If ) miles 
southerly from its southern point. Reefs line the north and eastern shore 
of Great Duck, and extend a mile to the southward from its SE. end. 
There is a detached reef J mile off the north shore of Great Duck. The 
passage between the Duck islands and between the islands and the shore 
should not be attempted. TheSW. end of the Great Duck is marked by a 

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34 LAKE HURON — ;NORTHEAST SHORE. 

Light. — A revolving red and white light, one red and two white flashes 
every 2 minutes, greatest brilliancy every 40 seconds, and visible 15 (17 J) 
miles in clear weather, is exhibited 64 feet above the lake level from a 
square, white tower, with dwelling attached. 

The lighthouse is on the SW. point of Great Duck Island. 

Fog SignaJ.^ — A steam horn gives a blast of 8 seconds, followed by a 
silent interval of 35 seconds. 

The fog-signal building is 150 feet SE. of the lighthouse. 

Coast. — From abreast of Inner Duck Island the south shore of Mani- 
toulin Island extends ESE. 48 (55J) miles to Owen Channel. The coast is 
much indented in this stretch and there are several shoals a mile off shore. 
The coast has been but partially (purveyed. Portage, Providence, Michael, 
and Thomas bays are in this stretch; the two former are apparently filled 
with shoals. Michael Point, the southern boundary of Michael Bay, 
extends over a mile into the lake and is continued westward 2 (2J) 
ipiles as a narrow reef. The bight between Michael and Walker points is 
blocked by reefs. On the western end of Michael Point is 

Michael Point Light.— A fixed white light, visible 13 (15) miles in clear 
weather, is exhibited 40 feet above the lake level, from a square, white 
tower, on the south side of Grand Manitoulin Island. 

Fog Signal. — A hand horn answers vessels^ fog signals. 

Between Hungerford Point, the south point of Manitoulin Island, and 
Cape Hurd 1 9J (22 J) miles to the southward, are Owen, Fitzwilliam, Yeo, 
Lucas, Main, MacGregor, Devil Island, and Cape Hurd channels, leading 
into Georgian Bay. These channels are formed by the various islands in 
the entrance to the bay and are described in chapter IV of the supplement. 

Isle of Ooves Light. — A flashing white light, flash 10 seconds, eclipsed 15 
seconds, visible 15 (ITJ) miles in clear weather, is shown 90 feet above the 
lake level from a white, circular tower on Gig Point, the north point of 
Cove Island. 

Fog Signal. — A steam horn gives a blast of 10 seconds, followed by a 
silent interval of 110 seconds. 

The fog horn is westward of the lighthouse. 

Ooast. — Oape Hurd, the northwestern point of Saugeen Peninsula, 
extends to the NW. from the mainland of Canada. The cape is low, flat, 
and covered with small timber. From Cape Hurd the coast trends SE. by 
S. 20 (23) miles, to Greenough Point. It is much indented and is lined with 
reefs the whole distance. From a point 2 (2J) miles north of Greenough 
Point a reef extends 2 (2 J) miles southerly, having deep water inside it. 

Stokes Bay, east of Greenough Point, is almost blocked by reefs, and 
in its entrance is Lyal Island connected to the mainland, to the southward 
and eastward, by an extensive reef. North of Lyal Island is the only 
clear water in Stokes Bay. The N W. point of Lyal Island is marked by 



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LIAL ISLAND — ^SOUTHAMPTON* 35. 

Lyal Light. — A revolving white light, every 16 aeconds^ vbible 12 (13}) 
miles in clear weather, is exhibited 51 feet above the lake level, from a 
square, white lighthouse, with a dwelling attached. 

The light is a coast light and a guide to Stokes Bay and to a small boat 
harbor close by. 

Coast. — ^Between Lyal Island and Chiefs Point, 16 miles south, the 
coast is lined with offlying reefs and islands, the principal of which are 
the Ghegheto Islands. This part of the coast should be given a berth of 
at least 4J (5) miles. 

Between Chiefs Point and Chantry Island the coast is freer of reefs*) 
Chautry Island is in the middle of an extensive reef which connects it with' 
the shore and extends from it in all other directions for over J mile. 

The island is J mile long, and If (2) miles WSW. from the mouth of 
the Saugeen River. On the north point of the island is 

Chantry Island Light. — A fixed white light, visible 16 (17^) miles in 
clear weather, is exhibited 86 feet above the lake level, from a white, cir- 
cular tower on the north point of Chantry Island. 

Fog Signal. — A hand horn answers vessels' fog signals. 

Southampton is at the mouth of the Saugeen River, east of Chantry 
Island. 

The Harbor is formed by a breakwater 1,600 feet long extending 
easterly from the old breakwater at the northern end of the island and a 
breakwater 2,000 feet long curving from the mainland to within 400 feet 
of the end of the breakwater extending from Chantry Island. A landing 
pier has been built in the inner harbor, where a quantity of stone has been 
removed from a shoal adjoining the anchorage ground. The breakwaters 
are continuous cribs, filled with stone. The depth of the channel is 
reported to be only 14 feet. 

Sangeen Light.— A fixed white light, visible 10 (11|) miles in clear 
weather, is exhibited 30 feet above the lake level from a mast with a 
brown shed at the base, standing on a crib on the breakwater, on the 
north side of the mouth of the Saugeen River. 

It serves to guide fishing boats into Saugeen River. 

Southampton Harbor Range Lights. — Front Light. — Fixed red to the 
north, white in the harbor, visible 7 (8) miles in clear weather, is exhib- 
ited 29 feet above the lake level, from a square, white tower, on the east 
end of the west breakwater, NE. f E. (N. 68° 26' E.) 933 yards from the 
light on Chantry Island. 

Rear Light. — A fixed white light, visible 10 (11 J) miles in clear 
weather, is exhibited 34 feet above the lake level, from a white, square 
tower on the shore south of the landing pier, 2,100 yards S. by E. (S. 11° 
15' E.) from the front light. 



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36 .LAKE HDRON-HBAST SHORE. 

Directions. — ^This range leads to the opening in the breakwater^ at the 
north end of the harbor. The rear light must be opened east of the front 
light to clear the shoal running out from the north end of Chantry Island. 

Port Elgin is in the bight, 3J (4) miles south of Chantry Island. The 
reef extends northward from the point west of Port Elgin 1 J (If) miles. 

Port Elgin Light. — ^A fixed white light is exhibited from a pole on the 
comer of a shed on the outer end of the Government wharf. 

Coast.— From west of Port Elgin the coast trends SW. 8 (9i) miles to 
Point Douglas, and should not be approached closer than 1 J (If) miles 
on account of the ree& which line it. Two miles south of Point Douglas 
is Inverhuron at the mouth of a small stream. It has one pier 450 feet in 
length, with 14 feet at the outer end. From here the coast trends SSW. 

7 (8) miles to Kincardine where there is a small stream. 

Kincardine Range Lights.— Front Light.— A fixed red light, visible 

8 (9 J) miles in clear weather, is shown 37 feet above the lake level, from a 
square, white tower, on the north pier, 1,185 feet WNW. (N. 67° 30' W.) 
from the main light. 

Main (Rear) Light. — An alternating red and white light every 20 
seconds, visible 14 (16) miles in clear weather, is exhibited 76 feet above 
the lake level, from a fawn-colored octagonal tower, dwelling attached, on 
a high stone foundation on the hillside in the town of Kincardine, 

The front light is visible in the direction of the range. The rear light 
is visible from all points seaward. . 

The range leads somewhat to the northward of the head of the north 
pier. 

Point Clark is 7J (8f ) miles SW. from Kincardine light, the coast 
between being bordered by a reef which extends a mile off shore in places. 
There is a reef extending from the point 1 J (1|) miles westerly, and south 
3 (3 J) miles of Point Clark is a similar reef. On Point Clark is 

Point Olark Light. — A revolving white light, every 30 seconds, visible 
15 (17J) miles in clear weather, is exhibited 87 feet above the lake level, 
from a white, circular tower. 

Port Albert, at the mouth of Nine Mile Eiver is 8 (9 J) miles south of 
the last-mentioned reef, and Goderich, at the mouth of the Maitland River 
is 8 (9J) miles south of Port Albert. All this portion of the coast can be 
approached with safety to J mile. 

Ooderich, a harbor of refuge, is an inclosed basin with a channel cut 
through the beach, connecting it with deep water in Lake Huron. The 
sides of the channel are protected by piers extending into the lake. There 
are two piers running parallel east and west for the distance of 1,509 feet. 
The north pier has an extension of 110 feet running to the NW. The 
width between the piers Ls 200 feet. There is an artificial bank between 
the Maitland River and the harbor^ the river discharging into the lake 



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GODERICH — LAKE VIEW. 37 

through the north beach and not into the harbor. There are clay banks 
from 60 to 120 feet high on each side* of the' harbor. Good anchorage off 
the piers ; clay bottom. 

The United States is represented by a consul. 

Dues. — Tonnage dues lange from 50 cents to $5.00. 

Signal Station. — There is a storm-signal station in the harbor. 

Ooderich main Light. — A fixed white light, visible 18" (20f ) miles in 
clear weather, is exhibited 150 feet above the lake level, from a square, 
-white tower, dwelling attached, on the high bank south of the entrance to 
the harbor. . 

Fog Signal. — An 8-inch steam whistle gives a blast of 10 seconds, 
duration, followed by a silent interval of 50 seconds. 

The fog signal is on the town waterworks building on the beach, SE. 
by E. J E. from the outer end of the north breakwater. It is 30 feet 
above the water, and maintained by a corporation. 

Gtoderich Range Lights. — ^Front Light. — A fixed red light, visible 
5 (5|) miles in clear weather, is exhibited 45 feet above the lake level from 
a square, white, open framework tower, on the north pier about 117 feet 
from its outer extremity. 

Rear Light. — A fixed green light, visible 5 (5f ) miles in clear weather, 
is exhibited 34 feet above the lake level, from a square, white tower on the 
north pier, 1 ,509 feet E. } S. from the front light. 

These lights in range E. |.S. (S. 81° 33' E.) lead to the head of the 
breakwater. 

Bajrfield, at the mouth of Bayfield River, is 10 (11 J) miles south of 
Goderich. There is a harbor composed of two piers and a basin. The 
north pier is 820 feet, and the south, 876 feet long, with a width of 200 
feet between them. Depth of water at the entrance, 10 feet. 

Lake View is 13 (15) miles south of Bayfield, and here the coast com- 
mences to bend to the westward to Cape Ipperwash, the end of which 
is S W. by W. (S. 66° 15' W.) 15 (17i) miles from Lake View. The reef 
extends as the cape is approached and surrounds the cape for a distance of 
1 J (1 j) miles. It is a dangerous reef, having only 5 feet of water a mile 
from the cape, and from 12 to 16 feet at its outer extremities. Between 
Cape Ipperwash and Point Harris there are bowlders and rocky spots 
within a mile of the shore. The reef continues 2 (2^) miles south of Point 
Harris. At Errol the coast changes direction, becoming steep-to, as far as 
the entrance to the St. Clair River, a distance of 10 (11 J) miles. 

Point Edward Range Lights (private lights). — Two fixed lights, 
white over red, are shown from high open framework towers which are 
conspicuous day marks. The range is S. | E. (S. 8° 26' E.) and leads 450 
feet west of Northwest shoal, the most westerly of the shoal spots. 

Lake Huron lightvessel is on this range. 



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CHAPTER III. 

ST. CLAIR AND DETROIT RIVERS, AND LAKE ST. CLAIR. 



ST. CLAIR RIVER. 

St. Clair River, the outlet of Lake Huron, commences at the southern 
end of this lake, where the shores of the United States and Canada nearly 
meet. This river, in connection with Lake St. Clair and the Detroit 
River, forms the link between lakes Huron and Erie. It is 46 miles in 
length, counting from the 20-foot curve in Lake Huron to the* 20-foot 
curve in Lake St. Clair. As the proposed improvements by dredging will 
form a continuous deep channel between these curves, it is but right to class 
them with the river proper, which extends from Fort Gratiot to the mouth 
of the South Channel. 

The proposed channel, from the 20-foot curve in Lake Huron into the 
river and terminating just inside of Fort Gratiot lighthouse, is to have a 
depth of 21 feet, with a width of 2,400 feet at the Huron end, which will be 
continued to the deep water in the St. Clair River. Thence through the 
river the navigation is easy until leaving the South Channel, when the flats 
are encountered. 

St. Olair Flats Canal. — Before the construction of this canal the St. 
Clair River emptied into Lake St. Clair through seven principal mouths 
or passes, the one most used being the South Channel. In 1866, in order 
to obtain a straight channel across the flats, a canal was commenced, and 
in 1871 finished to a depth of 13 feet, with a width of 300 feet, the channel 
being bounded on either side'by a dike. In 1873 the channel was deepened 
to 16 feet for a width of 200 feet. In 1893 the project was to dredge the 
area between the dikes to a depth of 20 feet, and to continue a channel 
above the canal into the river, and below the canal into the lake. 

The northern or river end of this channel was to have a bottom width 
of 650 feet, and from that to narrow gradually until the dikes were reached. 
Between the dikes a depth of 20 feet was to be jnaintained with a width of 
300 feet for a distance of 7,221 feet. From the lake end of the dikes the 
width was to increase gradually until a bottom width of 800 feet should be 
attained, and this width to be continued to the 20-foot curve, A depth of 
20 feet could be carried from this point across Lake St. Clair were it not 
for the shallow water known as the . 

(38) 



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APPROACH TO ST. CLAIR RIVER, 39 

Orosse Pointe Flats. — On these iSats at thQ ordinary stage of the lakes 
a depth of 16 feet can be carried, but during low water it is difficult to 
carry more than 15 feet. 

To improve the carrying capacity of this part of the chain of navigation, 
it is proposed to dredge a channel having a 20-foot depth with a width of 
800 feet from the 20-foot curve in Lake St. Clair to the deep water in the 
Detroit River. 

Detroit River. — From the southern end of Grosse Pointe channel to the 
southern end of the ship canal below Amherstburg this river is 32 miles 
long, with a navigable depth of water for large vessels of from J to J 
mile in width until the vicinity of Ballards Reef Hghtboat is reached, 
whence the channel narrows decidedly and iS filled with shoal spots having 
but 17 feet of water on them. 

These spots are about the center of the main channel and extend from 
the lightboat to Fort Maiden. The channel from Fort Maiden on is nar- 
row, about ^ mile, until f mile below Bois Blanc lighthouse ; thence to 
the cut which is to be dredged through the bar the channel widens. This 
cut is to be 800 feet wide and to carry a depth of 21 feet from the Detroit 
River into Lake Erie, a distance of 2} miles. 

NORTHERN APPROACH TO ST. CLAIR RIVER. 

From J!iakeport, in Michigan, the coast of Lake Huron trends 8SE. J 
E. to the mouth of the St. Clair River, and the coast can be approached 
within I mile until near Lake Huron lightvessel, when the ranges must 
be taken up for entering the river. 

From Errol, on the Canadian side, the coast trends W. by 8. and it is 
safe to approach within ^ mile until close to Fort Gratiot lighthouse. 

In the approach to the river, if coming from the northward, vessels of 
light draft should pass close to the lightvessel, keeping it to port; vessels of 
greater draft can find deeper water by keeping the lightvessel to starboard 
1^ (1|) miles away and continuing to approach the Canadian shore until 
Fort Gratiot light bears SW. by W. i W. (S. 59° 03' W.), distant 2 (2^) 
miles, whence a course WSW. J W. (S. 70° 18' W.) will lead through 4 
fathoms until the Fort Gratiot range is made, on which range vessels 
should enter the river. When the channel is cut from the lake into the 
river all vessels can use it. 

If coming from the eastward, vessels should bring Fort Gratiot light to 
bear 8W. by W. J W. (S. 59° 03' W.), distant 2 (2J) miles, and then keep 
a course of WSW. i W. (S. 70° 18' W.) until on the Fort Gratiot range. 

The lightvessel. Fort Gratiot light, and the lights of Point Edwards 
range are referred to in their proper places in the previous chapter. 



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40 ST, CLAIR RIVER. 

DIRECTIONS FOR ST. CLAIR RIVER. 

U. S-Engineera* Chart No. 37. 

Fort Oratiot Range. — ^On the west bank of this river and near the Grand 
Trunk Railway freight house and dock at Fort Gratiot is a fixed red light, 
shown from a telegraph pole surmounted by a white triangle for a day 
mark; the light is 67 feet above the lake level. 

About 300 feet SSW. | W. (S. 30° 56' W.) is a second red light at a 
height of 80 feet above the lake level and shown from a white pyramidal 
framework tower with a day mark 14 feet long and 10 feet wide. 

This range will carry deep water into the river and clear the 20-foot 
spot lying SE. 300 yards from Fort Gratiot lighthouse. 

After passing this 20-foot spot a mid-channel course should be kept 
until near the mouth of Black River when the deepest water will be found 
near the Canadian shore; a shoal makes out from the mouth of Black 
River 1,200 yards to the southward with a greatest width of 500 yards; 
12 feet can be carried over this shoal, but a lookout must be kept for some 
spots of gravel and rock on which there are but 10 feet. 

Buoy. — A black spar buoy, 25 feet in length, is moored in 15 feet of 
water (mean depth) to mark the easterly side of this shoal, 

Oaution as to Anchorage. — From Fort Gratiot light to below the 
rapids the holding ground is rocky and bad. Off Port Huron and Sarnia 
it is clay and good. Vessels should anchor as close to shore as safety will 
permit so as to leave the mid-channel clear for passing vessels. 

Black River. — If intending to enter this river it is well to know that 
a channel has been dredged from the St. Clair River to Washington 
avenue. The width varies from 1 50 feet at the mouth to 50 feet at the 
upper end. A depth of 14 feet can be depended upon except at extreme 
low water. 

Having cleared the shoal off Black River, a mid-channel course will 
carry deep water until approaching Stag Island which, with the shoals 
projecting from its north and south ends, divides the river and forms two 
narrow but deep channels, through either of which deep water can be 
carried, remembering that in the Michigan side channel there is a 15-foot 
spot a little below Stag Island and nearer to the Michigan shore. The 
Canadian channel is clear, 

Oorunna Range (Canadian).— The front light, a fixed white light, is 
shown from a white, skeleton-framed tower with an inclosed top, the side 
facing the water being slatted. It is 48 feet above liigh water and visible 
4 (4J) miles. 

The rear light, a fixed white light, 67 feet above high water, visible 
4 (4J) miles, stands 568 feet S. by E. ^ E. (S. 13° 21' E.) from the front 
light. It is shown from a square white tower. 



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STAG ISLAND WOODTICK ISLAND. 41 

Both of these towers are in the village of Corunna, the front light being 
near the old wharf at the foot of Fane street, whilst the rear light is on 
the west side of Beresford street. The course S. 13° 21' E, carries through 
the best water in the Canadian Channel past the shoals at the head of Stag 
Island as also past the shoals off the mouth of Talfords Creek. 

Stag Island. — The island proper is about If miles long with a shoal 
projecting to the northward for nearly | mile. 

Buoy. — Near the northern edge of this shoal a 25-foot spar buoy, 
painted in red and black horizontal stripes, is moored in 16 feet of water; 
the shoal extends a short distance north from this buoy. 

There is also a shoal which extends f mile south from the island. 

Buoy. — A 20-foot spar buoy, painted red and black in horizontal 
stripes, is rao6red in 12-feet of water, on this shoal. 

Caution. — A short distance to the southward from this buoy are two 
shoal spots of 1 7 feet water, and one of the same depth west from the buoy 
and nearly in mid-channel on the Michigan side. 

Having passed the shoals near Stag Island, deep water continues for IJ 
(If) miles to a shoal nearly in mid-channel and extending from off Moore- 
town, Canada, to the mouth of the Pine Eiver, Michigan. The shoal 
water (18 feet) extends for a distance of nearly ly^^^ (IJ) miles, with a 
least depth, opposite St. Clair, of 4 . feet. The shoal is marked by two 
buoys, and is known as St. Clair Middle Ground. 

Buoys. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted in red and black horizontal 
stripes, is moored near the north end of this shoal in 16 feet of water, and 
is about 650 yards W. J S. from the mouth of Baby Creek, Canada. 

A 25-f()ot spar buoy, painted in red and black horizontal stripes is 
moored near the south end of this shoal in 17 feet of water and is iabout 
450 yards ENE. from the north side of the mouth of Pine River. 

Pine River.— This river empties into the St. Clair Eiver at St. Clair. 
There is a dredged channel from its mouth to the shipyard, 10 feet deep 
and from 75 to 100 feet wide. 

From the shoals off Pine River the channel is clear until Marine City 
is reached, a distance of 6f (7|) miles. Off Marine City, and just to the 
northward of Woodtick (Fawn) Island is a shoal nearly one mile long, 
with a least depth of 16 feet and not buoyed. The main channel is on 
the Michigan side until Woodtick Island is passed, and there is a narrow 
channel on the Canadian side. 

Woodtick Island. — This island with its shoals is 1 J miles long by f 
mile wide ; the shoals are marked by buoys. 

Buoys. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted red and black in horizontal 

stripes is moored in 16 feet of water on the shoal extending north from 

Woodtick Island and about 900 yards N. by W. J W. from the northern 

end of that island; the shoal extends to the northward beyond the buoy. 

10988 4 

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42 ST. CLAIR RIVER. 

A 20-foot spar buoy, painted red and black in horizontal stripes is 
moored in 13 feet of water on the end of the shoal extending to the south* 
ward from Woodtick Island and is about 700 yards S. by W. | W. from 
the south j)oint of that island. « 

Belle River. — This river, on the Michigan side, empties into the St. 
Clair River just above the northerly end of Woodtick Island, and in the 
south end of Marine City. It has a dredged channel 60 feet wide and 
about 11 feet deep from the mouth to the first bridge, and thence to the 
Broadway bridge a vessel can carry 10 feet. 

From the buoy south of Woodtick Island a mid-channel course can be 
kept until off Babys Point. 

Chenal Ecart6 (Canadian) is one of the seven mouths of the St. Clair 
River, and at Babys Point takes its direction to the southeastward. It is 
very narrow and navigable for vessels drawing 1(5 feet. About 5 (6|) 
miles from Babys Point a second channel (Johnston) makes off to the 
southward. 

About 3 (3J) miles farther on. Bear Creek empties into Chenal Ecart6. 
Neither of the channels empty into deep water. 

PROM BABYS POINT THROUGH SOUTH CHANNEL. 

U. 8. Bnglneen* Ohart No. 41. 

A mid-channel course until the upper range on Russell Island is made. 

Upper Range Lights.— A fixed red light, No. 12, is shown from a 
tripod, with a target for a day mark^ at a height of 12 feet above the river 
level. 

A seccMid fixed red light, No. 11 (it shows white down stream to Fish 
dock), 25 feet above the river levels is shown from a mast on a cluster of 
piles, with a target for a day mark. The piles are in the water abreast a 
clump of trees on Russell Island and 1,500 feet SSW. J W. (S. 25° 18' W.) 
from the front light. (This light is also the rear light of the lower range.) 

Buoy. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted in red and black horizontal 
stripes, is moored in 16 feet of water and 900 yards N. by E. f E. (N. 19° 
41' E.) from the upper red light on Russell Island. 

In proceeding down the south channel bring the range a little on the 
starboard bow, giving the buoy a clearance of at least J mile. (Keeping 
this range will carry into 14 feet of water off the buoy.) This course can 
be carried until the middle light on Russell Island is abeam, when the 
course should be gradually changed to the southwestward until the lower 
range on Russell Island can be made. 

Lower Range Lights. — A fixed white light, No. 10, is shown from a 
tripod, with a target for a day mark, in the marsh. It is 12 feet above 
tbe liver level. 



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RANGE LIGHTS. 43 

A second white light, No. 11, 25 feet above the river level (it shows 
red upstream to Babys Point)^ is shown from a mast on a cluster of piles; 
with a target for a day mark. It is 1,800 feet NE. f N. (N. 40° 46' E.) 
from the front light. (This light is also the rear light of the upper range.) 

This range should be made about | inile below the lower white light, 
and the range can thence be carried to and a little below the Fish dock, 
when will be made the 

Herson Island Lower Range.— A fixed white light, No. 8, 12 feet 
above the river level, is shown from a cluster of piles, with a target for a 
day mark. It stands in the water. (This light is also the front light of 
the Herson Island upper range.) 

A fixed red light. No. 7, 20 feet above the river level and 1,050 feet 
8W. by W. i W. (8. 59° 03' W.) from No. 8, is shown, in the marsh, 
from a tripod with a target for a day mark. 

Soon after heading on this range* should be seen the 

Sqnirrel Shoal Buoy. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted red, moored in 17 
f6et of water off a shoal on which a depth of 13 feet has been found. 

When abreast of this buoy the course should be changed gradually to 
the southward, keeping closer to the Michigan shore for the deeper water. 
When a little below the red light. No. 7, of the lower range, a biioy on 
the Canadian side, should be seen and when it bears nearly south the upper 
range should be taken. 

Sqnirrel Island Buoy. — An 18-foot spar buoy, painted reil, is moored 
in 11 feet of water to mark the edge of the flat off Squirrel Island. It is 
800 yards 8. 3° E. from the red light No. 7, 

Herson Island Upper Range.— A fixed white light. No. 8, 12 feet 
above the river level, is shown from a cluster of piles, with a target for a 
day mark. It stands in the water. (This light is also the front light of 
the Hereon Island lower range.) 

A fixed red light, No. 9, 25 feet above the river level, is shown from 
a tripod, with a target for a day mark. It is 1,200 feet N. 21° E. from 
light No. 8, and with it forms a range which can be carried past Bassett 
Channel, one of the seven original outlets of the St. Clair River. 

Opposite the head of Bassett Channel is the 

Southeast Bend Upper Light, No. 6, a fixed white and red light, show- 
ing from a cluster of piles and 12 feet above the river level. It sbows^ 
white upstream and when it changes to red the course should be gradually 
changed to the southwestward for rounding the Southeast Bend. A mid« 
channel course should be kept past the next two lights. 

Southeast Bend Middle Light.— No. 5 is a fixed red light, 12 feet 
above the river level, on a cluster of piles. 



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44 ST. CLAIR RIVER. 

Southeast Bend Lower Light.— No. 4 is a fixed red and white light, 
showing the red upstream, and changing to white at the time a vessel 
should change its course to take the range. 

Lower Reach Lower Range.— No. 3, the front light of this range, is a 
fixed white light shown from a' cluster of piles with a target for a day 
mark. It is 12 feet above the river level. 

No. 2, the rear light, is a fixed red light, 25 feet above the river level, 
shown from a tripod with a target for a day mark. It is 1 ,000 feet N. 56° 
W. from No. 3. 

Light No. 2 is also the rear light of the Lower Reach lower range. 

This range will carry nearly a mid-channel course through the upper 
part of the Lower Beach, but do not go too close to the Canadian side. 
A vessel keeping to the northward of a line joining lights Nos. 4 and 1, 
will keep off the shoals. Do not go to the north ward of a line joining lights 
Nos. 3 and 4, but on approaching that line, if on the range, the course can 
be gradually changed to the west and a mid-channel course will carry past 
the lights until the lower range is nearly made. Do not go to the west- 
ward of this lower range. 

Lower Reach Upper Range.— No. 1, the front light of this range, is a 
fixed white light 12 feet above the river level. It is shown from a cluster 
of piles, with a target for a day mark. 

No. 2, a fixed red light, 25 feet above the river level and 900 feet N. 
60° E. frpm No. 1, is the rear light of this range as also of the upper range. 

Vessels Should not go northward of this range, but should keep close to 
it until' hearing the Star Island Hotel, when a course more in mid- 
channel should be kept. 

When f mile to the southwestward of Star Island Hotel a course SW. 
f S. (S. 40° 46' W.) with the lighthouse on the upper end of the west 
pier of the United States Ship Canal nearly ahead, will carry in deep 
water to the canal. At this entrance to the canal the width is 296 feet. 
There is a light on each end of the west pier. 

St. Olair Flats Canal Lights.— A fixed red light visible 11^ (13) 
miles, and 45 feet above the river level is shown from an octagonal tower, 
rising from the corner of a dwelling, both being built of red brick. It is 
on the NE. end. 

A fixed red light visible llj (13) miles, shown from the same descrip- 
tion of tower and at the same height above the lake level is on the SW. 
end of this canal in Lake St. Clair, 

DIRECTIONS ACROSS LAKE ST. CLAIR. 

U. S. Engineers* Chart No. 41. 

From the lighthouse on the SW» end of the west pier a course of SW, 
(S. 45® W.) for 12J (14J) miles will carry to the Grosse Pointe Beacon 



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LAKE ST. CLAIR — DETROIT RIVER — DIRECTIONS. 45 

light, which leave to port, passing between it and the buoy near it. Be- 
fore reaching the beacon light the vessel will have passed 

Orosse Pointe laghtvessel. — ^No. 10 is moored in 16 feet of water, 1} 
(If) miles 8. 62° E. from Grosse Pointe. 

The lightvessel is a scow with one mast, with a circular cage-work day 
mark at the masthead. The hull is painted red with the name in large 
black letters on each side, and "No. 10 ^' on the stern. The day marl^ and 
topmast are painted black. 

The light is fixed white, 25 feet above the lake level, and visible in 
clear weather lOJ(llf) miles. 

Fog Signal. — During thick weather a bell is rung. 

Buoy. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted black, is moored 700 feet NW. of 
the lightvessel. It marks a 15-foot patch. 

By the above course, SW., vessels leave the lightvessel and buoy to port, 
and keep the deepest water shown on the chart. 

Orosse Pointe Beacon Light. — A fixed red light, 37 feet above the 
water is shown over a fixed white light, 30 feet above the water, from a 
cluster of piles 13 feet in diameter. On this beacon is a lamp room sur- 
mounted by a mast, from which the lights are shown. There is also a 
day mark of slats painted white. The beacon is 2f miles ENE. f E. (N. 
74° 32' E.) from Windmill Point lighthouse. 

Detroit River (head of) Buoy. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted black, is 
moored in 16 feet of water 400 yards NW. from the beacon. 

Vessels should pass between this buoy and beacon and with them abeam 
should change course to SW. by W. f W. (S. 64° 41' W.) until abeam of 
Windmill Point light, distant J mile. 

DIRECTIONS FOR DETROIT RIVER— MAIN CHANNEL. 

U. S. Engineers' Chart No. 66. 

Windmill Point Light. — A fixed white light varied by a red flash every 
15 seconds, visible 12i (14|) miles is exhibited, 56 feet above the lake 
level, from a conical white tower connected with a red brick dwelling 
by a covered way. The tower is on Windmill Point, the north side of the 
entrance to the Detroit River. 

The course SW. by W. f W. (S. 64° 41' W.) will carry in between 
Windmill Point and Isle aux Peches, which island is surrounded by shoal 
water with a spit off the west end. This course can be kept until on the 

Windmill Point Range. — A fixed red light is shown, 34 feet above 
the river level, from a square, red, pyramidal, skeleton tower, the upper 
part being inclosed. 

A second fixed red light, 49 feet above the river level and visible 7J 
(8J) miles, is shown from a square, white, skeleton tower, pyramidal in 
shape, 437 feet NE. from the preceding.^ 

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46 DETROIT RIVER. 

. Just before changing the course to the range, two buoys should be seen, 
one on either bow. 

Belle Isle (east end) Buoy.-r-A 2d-foot spar buoy, painted red and 
black in horizontal stripes, is moored in 16 feet of water on the east point 
of the shoal, off the head of Belle Isle. It is also a mark for the division 
of the channel, which is divided into two parts by Belle Isle. 

This buoy should be made a little on. the starboard bow, and on the port 
bow the 

Isle aux leeches Buoy, No. 8. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted red, is 
moored in 16. feet of water on the edge of the shoal, extending from the 
west end of the Isle aux Peches. 

The range course SW. (S. 45° W.), with the lights in line astern, can be 
kept until Belle Isle light is passed. 

Belle Isle Light. — A fixed red light, 42 feet above the river level and 
visible 11^ (13) miles, is shown from a square tower on a dwelling, both 
being built of red brick. It is on the SE. \\omi of Belle Isle. 

From here a mid-channel course can be kept until close to Fighting 
Island* 

NORTHERN CHANNEL. 

A vessel standing into the Detroit River and intending to take this 
channel should change course, when Windmill Point light is abeam, to W. 
I S. (S. 85° 47' W.), which will carry, in deep water, until close to the 

Scott Middle Ground (upper end) Buoys.— No. 6 is a 16-foot spar 
buoy, painted red, moored in 18 feet of water on the north point of this 
middle ground. 

A mid-channel course should be kept past buoys Nos. 4 and 2. 

No. 4 is a 16-foot spar buoy, moored in 24 feet of water on the NW. 
point of the middle ground. 

No. 2 is a 16-foot spar buoy, moored in 1 1 feet of water just above the 
Belle Isle bridge. 

Passing through the passage in this bridge a course dose to the Detroit 
side will carry, in deep water, past the 

Belle Isle (west end) Buoy. — A 25-foot spar buoy, painted red and 
black in horizontal stripes, is moored in 13 feet of water on the end of the 
shoal extending to the souteastward from Belle Isle. A mid -channel 
course can be held to near Fighting Island. When one. mile south of the 
coal chutes, which will be one mile north of Fighting Island, the course 
should be gradually changed to the south westward, keeping Fighting 
Island to port. 

MAIN CHANNEL— Continued. 

Continue a mid-channel course between Fighting Island and Grassy 
Island until abeam of and at least 950 feet eastward from 



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RANGE LIGHTS, 47 

Grassy Islaod Light. — A fixed white light, varied by a white flash 
every minute and visible 11 ^^^ (13|) miles, is exhibited from a lantern 
surmounting a square, cream-colored tower attached to a dwelling built ou 
submerged piles and surrounded by a cofferdana. It stands in 6 feet of 
]vater. 

. From here a. course of S. f W. (S. 8° 26' W.) will carry, on the Mama- 
juda range, to a point about | mile from the red light, 
. Mamajuda Range Light — A fixed red light, on Mamajuda Shoal, in 
3J feet of water, is shown from a square, white, pyramidal tower on a 
platform supported by piles. It is 28 feet above the river level and 600 
feet N. f E. (N. 8° 26' E.) from Mamajuda light. 

This light illuminates an arc of 120°, between W. f N. (N. 81° 33' W.) 
toS. byE. f E. (S. 21°05'E.). 

With Mamajuda light as a rear light, it forms a irange marking the 
best water from a point 950 feet eastward of Grassy Island light to a 
point I mile from this red light. 

From this point a course of south should be made until abeam of 
Mamajuda light or on Grosse Isle, upper range, 

Mamajuda Light.— A fixed red light, visible 11^ (13) miles, is exhib- 
ited from a low, square tOwer on a white dwelling built on piles. The 
tower is connected with the islet by a short foot-bridge. It stands in 3 feet 
of water 200 feet from the edge of the channel. 

The range formed by this light with Grassy Point light can be used 
north of Grassy Point south of Mamajuda, or between the two, care 
being taken not to approach Mamajuda on the south nearer than 500 
yards nor on the north nearer than 1,100 yards. Nor should it be carried 
nearer to Grassy Point than 900 yards. 

When abeam of Mamajuda light, or, if possible, sooner, shape a course 
on the upper range of Grosse Isle, S. by W. | W. (S. 12° 39' W.). 

Orosse Isle, Upper Range.— Two fixed white lights, each shown from 
a square, brown, pyramidal framework tower, with a small white house 
with a red roof at its base. 

The front light is 45 feet above the river level in 3J feet of water. 

The rear light is 75 feet above the river level, 450 feet from the shore, 
and about 1,350 feet 8. by W. | W. (S. 12° 39' W.) from the front light. 

Each light illuminates S. 90° of the horizon between WSW. f W. (S. 71° 
43' W.) and 8. by E. | E. (8. 18° 16' E.). 

This range marks the best water from a point 750 feet eastward of 
Mamajuda light to the intersection with the Grosse Isle, lower range, up 
the river. 

Keep the course until the lower range is made, when change course to 
S. by E. f E. (8. 18° 16' E.) with the lights in line astern. 

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48 DETROIT RIVER. 

Orosse Me, Lower Range.— The front light is a fixed White lens lan- 
tern, 71 feet above the river level and shown from a brown, triangular, 
skeleton iron pyramid. This is built on a crib about 3,000 feet S. 36° W. 
of Mamajuda lighthouse. 

The rear light, about 1,493 feet N. by W. J W. (N. 16° 62' W.) from 
the preceding, is a fixed white light shown from a tower similar to the 
front light tower and 103 feet above the river level. 

The course S. by E. | E. (S. 18° 16' E.) will carry through about 17 
feet of water until the Limekiln Crossing Kange (Canadian) can be made, 
passing on the way : 

A Eed Spar Buoy, in 9 J feet of water on the east side of the channel, 
which marks the edge of the bank at the lower end of Fighting Island : 

A Black Stake Buoy. — A 25-foot spar buoy, standing in a sandy 
bottom at the elbow of the flat and about 1,000 feet N. 25° W. from 

Ballards Reef Lightboat, a small flat-bottom scow, with a trunk cabins 
painted red, with name in white letters on each side. It shows a fixed 
red light visible 5 (5f ) miles. The boat is moored off the easterly end of 
Ballards Reef in 18 feet of water : 

Fog Signal. — During thick and foggy weather a bell will be struck by 
hand. 

A Red Spar Buoy, on the 3-fathom curve of the bank SW. from the 
mouth of the River aux Canards. 

The bed of this range was swept with a horizontal bar suspended from 
a flat-boat and numerous bowlders were found with but 17 to 18 feet of 
water over them. These bowlders are dangerously near the range, con- 
sequently no passage can be described for a 20-foot ship until a complete 
survey is made. The passage through this portion of the river can be 
made by vessels drawing not over 17 feet, but as it is probable that these 
bowlders are scattered over the entire bed of this section of the river great 
caution must be observed. 

A Red Can Buoy off Dougalls rock. 

The course S. 18° 16' E. can be carried for nearly 3 J (4) miles until 
abeam of the 

LimekUn Grossini^ (North) Lightvessel, No. 66.— A small flat-bottom 
scow, with a trunk cabin, painted white, with name in red letters on each 
side. From it is shown a fixed white light visible 5 (5f ) miles. It is 
moored on the easterly side of the north end of the cut at Limekiln Cross- 
ing but on the west side of the passage through on the 

LimekUn Grossing Range (Canadian). — ^The front light of this range 
is on a pier on the shoal off Fort Maiden, above Amherstburg. It is a 
fixed white light, 31 feet above the river level and visible 2 (2J) miles. 
It is shown from a white skeleton tower surmounted by a metal lantern. 

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RANGE LIGHTS — BUOYS. 49 

The rear light is fixed red, visible 2 (2J) miles, and 51 feet above the 
river level, shown from a red skeleton tower surmounted by a metal lan- 
tern. The tower is on a pier 890 feet S. ^^ E, (S. 1° 07' E.) from the 
front light. 

While heading down to the Limekiln Crossing range a range on the 
Canadian side will be seen. This range is private, belonging to Duff and 
€tetfield and is nearly on the alignment of the Grosse Isle lower range, the 
points of intersection with the Limekiln Crossing range differing about 
600 feet. 

When on Limekiln Crossing range head through the cut, a distance of 
2,600 feet until abeam of the South Limekiln Crossing lightvessel. 

This cut is 440 feet wide, the Canadian range leading through the center 
of it. 

There is a private range on Texas dock, which also leads through the 
cut a little east of the Government range. 

Limekilii Grossing (South) Lightvessel, No. 64, is similar in all respects 
to No. 65 except that it is moored on the south end of the cut. 

When abeam of this lightvessel the Bois Blanc Island range should be 
seen* 

Head of Bois Blanc Island Range (Canadian).— The front light, 300 
feet from the extreme north point of the island, is fixed white, visible 2 
(2J) miles and shown from a white tripod with an oval target on top. It is 
70 feet above the river level. 

The rear light, 150 yards S. by W. J W. (S. 16° 52' W.) from the 
front light, is fixed red, visible, 2 (2J) miles and shown from a red tripod 
with an oval target on top. It is 90 feet above the river level. 

Head on this range and so continue until abeam of 

A Red Can Buoy on the Canadian side, or on a range of private lights, 
close to the buoy. 

A near mid-channel course should now be kept until the Amherstburg 
range is made. It is preferable to keep on the Bois Blanc Island side to 
clear 

A Red Spar Buoy marking the New York bowlders. 

After passing this buoy a 

Black Spar Buoy will be passed abreast of the lumber dock and when 
abeam of Bois Blanc lighthouse another black stake buoy should be seen, 
both on the Bois Blanc side. 

Amherstburg Range is maintained by the Lake Carriers^ Association 
of Buffalo, N. Y. 

The front light is fixed red, visible 8 (9^) miles and shown from a square, 
white tower, 56 feet above the river level. The tower is 80 feet from the 
water and 2,300 feet north of Erasers dock. 



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60 . DETROIT RIVER, 

The rear light is fixed red, visible 8 (9^) miles and shown from a squa.re, 
red tower, 80 feet above the river level. It is 475 feet N. by E. f E. 
easterly (N. 16° 30' E.) from the front light. 

Stand down the river with the range in line astern heading S. 10° 
30' W. passing 

Bois Blanc Light. — ^A fixed white light, vipible 14 (16|) miles, is on 
the south end of Bois Blanc Island. It is shown from a circular white 
tower with a dwelling on the east side. The lantern is red. 

Below Bois Blanc light, the following buoys will be passed: 

A Black Can Buoy, about 1,400 feet S. 5*^ W. from Bois Blanc light. 

A Black Can Buoy, about 4,000 feet S. 16° W* from Bois Blanc light. 

Opposite this buoy and 1,200 feet S. 75° E. from it is 

A Red Can Buoy, and 3,900 feet S. 19° W. from this buoy is 

A Shoal (Pontiac) with 15 J feet over it, hard bottom. It is on the 
Araherstburg range. This shoal should be kept to the eastward for better 
water. Resume the range after passing the shoal which will carry in deep 
water to the black buoy close to the Bar Point light vessel, passing on the way 

A Bed Can Buoy, 3,700 feet S. 6° W. from Pontiac Shoal, 

A Bed Spar Buoy, 1,400 feet S. 60° E. from Bar Point lightvessej. 

A Black Spar Buoy, 500 feet S. 60° E. from Bar Point lightvessel. 

Pass this buoy close-to keeping it to starboard and change course to S. 
by W. f W. westerly (S. 20° W.) which will carry past the following : 

Bar Point Lightvessel, No. 59, is moored in 17 feet of water ofi" Bar 
Point Shoal. It is schooner rigged, two masts, no bowsprit. The light is 
fixed white, shown from three lanterns encircling the fore masthead. It ia 
visible 1 1^^ (13J) miles. There is a circular black cage- work day mark at 
the fore masthead and a small black smokestack and fog signal between 
the masts. The hull is black with " No. 59, Bar Point Shoal " in white 
letters on each side. 

Fog Signal.^A 6-inch steam whistle sounds a blast of 10 seconds 
every 30 seconds. If the whistle be disabled a bell will be rung by hand. 

A Black Spar Buoy, about 1,550 feet S. 10° W. from the lightvessel. 

A Black Spar Buoy, about 3,360 feet S. 17° W. from the lightvessel. 

On the port hand should bfe seen 

A Red Spar Buoy, about 1,500 feet N. 60° E. from the last black buoy. 

A Red Spar Buoy, about 4,100 feet S. 4° W. from the latter. 

A Red Spar Buoy, about 5,800 feet S. 32° E. from the last. 

When clear of the last black buoy a course can be shaped into Lake Erie. 

When the deep-water channel is finished, run down on the Amherstburg 
range until Bois Blanc light bears N. § E. easterly (N. 10° 30' E.) when 
a course S. 10° W. will, with Bois Blanc light astern and Bar Point light 
ahead, carry to and through the channel and on to Bar Point light, which 
can be passed on either hand. 



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LAKE ST. CLAIR. 51 

LAKE ST. CLAIR. 

Lake St. Clair is of irregular shape, being 8^ miles wide and 26J miles 
long from New Baltimore on the north to Belle River on the south. An- 
chor Bay, the northwestern section of the lake is cut off by a bar with a 
least depth of 8 feet over it at the center. This bar extends across from 
the mouth of the Clinton River to the mouth of the Chenal Aboutrond. 

New Baltimore and Fairhaven are on the north shore of the bay, the 
former having 8 feet and the latter 6 feet off the ends of the wharves. 

Ten miles south of New Baltimore is Point Huron with shoal water off 
it. From here to Milk River Point there is but 12 feet of water 1^ miles 
from shore. From here to Windmill Point, vessels drawing 12 feet should 
not approach the shore nearer than f mile. On the south shore Belle River 
Station is the only town of any size between the Detroit River and the 
Thames Ri vei*. The 1 2-foot curve is from one mile to 2 J miles off this coast. 

The Thames at the SE. end of this lake is the only river of any import- 
ance on the Canadian side, and at its mouth are range lights. 

Thames River Lights. — ^A fixed white light, visible 12 (13|) miles, is 
shown from a circular, white tower. It is on the south shore of the 
mouth of the river. 

A fixed white light, visible 6 (7) miles, is shown from a square, red 
tower. It is 300 feet NW. J N. (N. 39^ 22' W.) from the main light. 
These two lights in one lead over the bar. This bar has a least depth of 
7 feet. 

From the Thames River the coast trends nearly north to Mitchel Point 
and north and west of the point is Mitchel Bay. 

From the east shore the 12-foot curve averages the same distance as it 
does from the south shore. 

The north shore from Mitchel Point to the United States Ship Canal is 
low and marshy, with shoal water extending off over 2 miles. 

The course from the mouth of the ship canal to the bar of the Thames 
River is SE. 

The middle of this lake has an average depth of 3^ fathoms, mud and 
clay. 

Anchor Bay can be approached through the north channel, but this has 
a bar of 8 feet least water at its mouth. 



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CHAPTER IV. 

RULES OF THE ROAD 

FOR THE GREAT LAKES AND THEIR CONNECTING AND TRIBUTARY 
WATERS AS FAR EAST AS MONTREAL. 



Approved, February 8, 1895. 
"All LAWS or parts of laws, so far as applicable to the 

NAVIGATION OF THE GrEAT LaKES AND THEIR CONNECTING AND 

tributary waters as far east as m olftreal, inconsistent with 
the foregoing rules are hereby repealed. 

"That this Act shall take effect on and after March first, 
eighteen hundred and ninety-five." 

See Rule 28, Articles 4 and 5. 



[Public— No. 41.] 

An Act to regulate navigation on the Great Lakes and their connect- 
ing and tributary waters. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of RepreseTttativea of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That the following rules for pre- 
venting collisions shall be followed in the navigation of all public and 
private vessels of the United States upon the Great Lakes and their con- 
necting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal. 

Steam and Sail Vessels. 

EuLE 1 . Every steam vessel which is under sail and not under steam, 
shall be considered a sail vessel ; and every steam vessel which is under 
steam, whether under sail or not, shall be considered a steam vessel. The 
word steam vessel shall include any vessel propelled by machinery. A 
vessel is under way within the meaning of these rules when she is not at 
anchor or made fast to the shore or aground. 

LIGHTS. 

EuLE 2. The lights mentioned in the following rules and no others 
shall be carried in all weathers from sunset to sunrise. The word visible 
in these rules when applied to lights shall mean visible on a dark night 
with a clear atmosphere. 

(52) 

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RULES OF THE ROAD. 63 

Rule 3. Except in the cases hereinafter expressly provided for, a steam 
vessel when under way shall carry : 

(a) On or in front of the foremast, or if a vessel without a foremast, 
then in the fore part of the vessel, at a height above the hull of not less 
than twenty feet, and if the beam of the vessel exceeds twenty feet, then at 
a height above the hull not less than such beam, so, however, that such 
height need not exceed forty feet, a bright white light so constructed as to 
show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the 
compass, so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the ves- 
sel, namely, from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side, 
and of such character as to be visible at a distance of at least five miles. 

(6) On the starboard side, a green light, so constructed as to throw an 
unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so 
fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam 
on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance 
of at least two miles. 

(c) On the port side, a red light, so constructed as to show an unbn)ken 
light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so fixed as to 
throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port 
side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least two 
miles. 

(d) The said green and red lights shall be fitted with inboard screens 
projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent these 
lights from being seen across the bow. 

(e) A steamer of over one hundred and fifty feet register length shall 
also carry when under way an additiopal bright light similar in construc- 
tion to that mentioned in subdivision (a), so fixed as to throw the light all 
around the horizon and of such character as to be visible at a distance of 
at least three miles. Such additional light shall be placed in line with the 
keel at least fifteen feet higher from the deck and more than seventy-five 
feet abaft the light mentioned in subdivision (a). 

VESSELS TOWING. 

Rule 4. A steam vessel having a tow other than a raft shall in addi- 
tion to the forward bright light mentioned in subdivision (a) of rule three 
carry in a vertical line not less than six feet above or below that* light a 
second bright light of the same construction and character and fixed and 
carried in the same manner as the forward bright light mentioned in said 
subdivision (a) of rule three. Such steamer shall also carry a small bright 
light abaft the funnel or aft^er mast for the tow to steer by, but such light 
shall not be- visible forward of the beam. 

Rule 6. A steam vessel having a raft in tow shall, instead of the for- 
ward lights mentioned in rule four, carry on or in front of the foremast, 



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54 RULES OF THE ROAD. 

or if a Vessel without a foremast then in the fore part of the vessel, at a 
height above the hull of not less than twenty feet, and if the beam of the 
vessel exceeds twenty feet, then at a height above the hull not less than 
such beam, so however that such height need not exceed forty feet, two 
bright lights in a horizontal line athwartships and not less than eight feet 
apart, each so fixed as to throw the light all around the horizon and of such 
character as to be visible at a distance of at least five miles* Such steamer 
shall also carry the ^mall bright steering light oft, of the character and fixed 
as required in rule four. 

KuLE 6. A sailing vessel under way and any vessel being towed shall 
carry the side lights mentioned in rule three. 

A vessel in tow shall also carry a small bright light aft, but such light 
shall not be visible forward of the beam. 

Rule 7. The lights for tugs under thirty tons register whose principal 
business is harbor towing, and for boats navigating only on the River 
Saint Lawrence, also ferryboats, rafts, and canal 'boats, shall be regulated 
by rules which have been or may hereafter be prescribed by the Board of 
Supervising Inspectors of Steam Vessels. 

Rule 8. Whenever, as in the case of small vessels under way daring 
bad weather, the green and red sidelights can not be fixed, these lights 
shall be kept at hand lighted and ready for use, and shall, on the approach 
of or to other vessels, be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient 
time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visib^ 
and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red 
light on the starboard side, nor, if practicable, mote than two points abafb 
the beam on their respective sides. To make the use of these portable 
lights more certain and easy, they shall each be painted outside with the 
color of the light they respectively contain, and shall be provided with 
suitable screens. 

Rule 9. A vessel under one hundred and fifty feet register lengthy 
when at anchor, shall carry forward, where it can best be seen, but at 
a height not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a white light in a 
lantern constructed so as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light, 
visible all around the horizon, at a distance of at least one mile. 

A vessel of one hundred and fifty feet or upward in register length, when 
at anchor, shall carry in the forward part of the vessel, at a height of not 
less than twenty and not exceeding forty feet aboVe the hull, one such 
light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall 
be not less than fifteen feet lower than the forward light, another such 
light. 

Rule 10. Produce boats, canal boats, fishing boats, rafts, or other water 
craft navigating any bay, harbor, or river by hand power, horse power, 
sail, or by the current of the river, or which shall be anchored or moored 



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RULES OF THE ROAD. 65 

in or near the channel or fairway of any bay, harbor, or river, and not 
otherwise provided for in these rules, shall carry one or more good white 
lights, which shall be placed in such manner as shall be prescribed by the 
Board of Supervising Inspectors of Steam Vessels. 

Rule 11. Open boats shall not be obliged to carry the side lights re- 
quired for other vessels, but shall, if they do not carry such lights,*carry 
a lantern having a green slide on one side and a red slide on the other 
side; and on the approach of or to other vessels, such lantern shall be ex- 
hibited in suflScient time to prevent collision, and in such a manner that 
the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the 
starboard side. Open boats, when at anchor or stationary, shall exhibit a 
bright white light. They shall not, however, be prevented from using a 
flare-up in addition if considered expedient. 

Rule 12. Sailing vessels shalj at all times, on the approach of any 
steamer during, the nighttime, show a lighted torch upon that point or 
quarter to which such steamer shall be approaching. 

Rule 13. The exhibition of any light on board of a vessel of war or 
revenue cutter of the United States may be suspended whenever, in thcl 
opinion of the Secretary of the Navy, the commander in chief of a 
squadron, or the commander of a vessel acting singly, the special character 
of the service may require it. 

FOG SIGNALS. 

Rule 1-1. A steam vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle, 
sounded by steam or by some substitute for steam, placed before the funnel 
not less than eight feet from the deck, or in such other place as the local 
inspectors of steam vessels shall determine, and of such dharacta* as to b6 
heard in ordinary weather at a distance of at least two miles, and with an 
efficient bell, and it is hereby made the duty of the United States local 
inspectors of steam vessels when inspecting the same to require each 
steamer to be furnished with such whistle and bell. A sailing vessel shall 
be provided with an efficient fog horn and with an efficient bell. 

Whenever there is thick weather by reason of fog, mist, falling snow, 
heavy rainstorms, or other causes, whether by day or by night, fog signals 
shall be used as follows : 

(a) A steam vessel under way, excepting only a steam vessel with raft 
in tow, shall sound at intervals of not more than one minute three distinct 
blasts of her whistle. 

(6) Every vessel in tow of another vessel shall, at intervals of one min- 
ute, sound four bells on a good and efficient and properly placed bell as 
follows: By striking the bell twice in quick succession, followed by a little 
longer interval, and then again striking twice in quick succession (in the 
manner in which four bells is struck in indicating time). 



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66 RULES OF THE ROAD. 

(o) A steamer with a raft in tow shall sound at intervals of not more 
than one minute a screeching or Modoc whistle for from three to five 
seconds. 

(d) A sailing vessel under way and not in tow shall sound at intervals 
of not more than one minute— 

If on the starboard tack with wind forward of abeam, one blast of her 
foghorn; 

. If on the port tack with wind forward of the beam, two blasts of her 
fog horn; 

If she has the wind abaft the beam on either side, three blasts of her fog 
horn. 

(e) Any vessel at anchor and any vessel aground in or near a channel or 
fairway shall at intervals of not more than two minutes ring the bell 
rapidly for three to five seconds. 

(/) Vessels of less than ten tons registered tonnage, not being steam 
vessels, shall not be obliged to give the above-mentioned signals, but if 
they do not they shall make some other efficient sound signal at intervals 
of not more than one minute. 

(g) Produce boats, fishing boats, rafts, or other water craft navigating by 
hand power .or by the current of the river, or anchored or moored in or 
near the channel or fairway and not in any port, and not otherwise pro- . 
vided for in these rules, shall sound a fog horn, or equivalent signal, at 
intervals of not more than one minute. 

Rule 1 5. Every vessel shall, in thick weather, by reason of fog, mist, 
falling snow, heavy rainstorms, or other causes, go at moderate speed. A 
steam vessel hearing, apparently not more than four points from right 
ahead, the fog signal of another vessel shall at once reduce her speed to 
bare steerageway, and navigate with caution until the vessels shall have 
passed each other. 

Steering and Sailing Rules. 

sailing vessels. 

Rule 16. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another so as 
to involve risk of collision one of them shall keep out of the way of the 
other, as follows, namely: 

(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel 
which is closehauled. 

(b) A vessel which is closehauled on the port tack shall keep out of the 
way of a vessel which is closehauled on the starboard tack. 

(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the 
vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of 
the other* 



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RULES OF THE ROAD. 57 

(d) When they are running free, with the wind on the same side, the 
vessel which is to windward shall keep oat of the way of the vessel 
which is to leeward. 

STEAM VESSELS. 

Rule 17. When two steam vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end 
on, so as to involve risk of collision each shall alter her course to starboard, 
so that each shall pass on the port side of the other. 

Rule 18. When two steam vessels are crossing so as to involve risk 
of collision the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall 
keep out of the way of the other. 

Rule 19. When a steam vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in 
such directions as to involve risk of collision the steam vessel shall keep 
out of the way of the sailing vessel. 

Rule 20. Where, by any of the rules herein prescribed, one of two ves- 
sels shall keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed. 

Rule 21. Every steam vessel which is directed by these rules to keep 
out of the way of another vessel shall, on approa^^hing her, if necessary, 
slacken her speed or stop or reverse. 

Rule 22. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules every ves- 
sel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel. 

Rule 23. In all weathers every steam vessel under way in taking any 
course authorized or required by these rules shall indicate that course by 
the following signals on her whistle, to be accompanied whenever required 
by corresponding alteration of her helm ; and every steam vessel i-eceiving 
a signal from another shall promptly respond with the same signal or, as 
provided in rule twenty -six : 

One blast to mean, " I am directing my course to starboard.'' 

Two blasts to mean, " I am directing my course to port." But the giving 
or answering signals by a vessel required to keep her course shall not vary 
the duties and obligations of the respective vessels. 

Rule 24. That in all narrow channels where there is a current, and in 
the rivers Saint Mary, Saint Clair, Detroit, Niagara, and Saint Lawrence, 
when two steamers are meeting, the descending steamer shall have the right 
of way, and shall, before the vessels shall have arrived within the distance 
of one-half mile of each other, give the signal necessary to indicate which 
side she elects to take. 

Rule 25. In all channels less than five hundred feet in width, no steam ves- 
sel shall pass another going in the same direction unless the steam vessel ahead 
be disabled or signify her willingness that the steam vessel astern shall pass, 
when the steam vessel astern may pass, subject, however, to the other rules 
applicable to such a situation. And when steam vessels proceeding in oppo- 
site directions are about to meet in such channels, both such vessels shall be 
slowed down to a moderate speed, according to the circumstances. 

10988 6 ^ T 

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58 HOLES OF THE ROAD, 

Rule 26, If the pilot of a steam vessel to which a passing signal is 
sounded deems it unsafe to accept and assent to said signal, he shall not 
sound a cross signal ; but in that case, and in every case where the pilot of 
one steamer fails to understand the course or intention of an approaching 
steamer, whether from signals being given or answered erroneously, or 
from other causes, the pilot of such steamer so receiving the first passing 
signal, or the pilot so in doubt, shall sound several short and rapid blasts 
of the whistle; and if the vessels shall have approached within half a mile 
of each other both shall reduce their speed to bare steerageway, and, if 
necessary, stop and reverse. 

Rule 27. In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be 
had to all dangers of navigation and collision and to any special circum- 
stances which may render a departure from the above rules necessary in 
order to avoid immediate danger. 

Rule 28. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the 
owner or master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to 
carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookout, or of a 
neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice 
of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case. 

Sec. 2. That a fine not exceeding two hundred dollars, may be imposed 
for the violation of any of the provisions of this Act. The vessel shall be 
liable for the said penalty, and may be seized and proceeded against, by 
way of libel, in the district couFt of the United States for any district 
within which such vessel may be found. 

Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States shall 
have authority to establish all necessary regulations, not inconsistent with 
the provisions of this Act, required to carry the same into effect. 

The Board of Supervising Inspectors of the United Stat^ shall have 
authority to establish such regulations to be observed by all steam vessels 
in passing each other, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as 
they shall from time to time deem necessary; and all regulations adopted 
by the said Board of Supervising Inspectors under the authority of this 
Act, when approved by the Secretary of the Treasury shall have the force 
of law. Two printed copies of any such regulations for passing, signed by 
them, shall be furnished to each steam vessel, and shall at all times be 
kept posted up in conspicuous places on board. 

Sec. 4. That all laws or parts of laws, so far as applicable to the navi- 
gation of the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far 
east as Montreal, inconsistent with the foregoing rules are hereby repealed. 

Sec. 6. That this Act shall take effect on and after March first, eighteen 
hundred and ninety-five. 

Approved, February 8, 1895. 



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CHAPTER V. 

SIGNALS. 
UNITED STATES AND CANADA. 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 

Instbuctions ) — - T, 

XT ?■ Weather Bureau, 

No 109. J * 

Washington, D. C, November^ /j, 1894, 

Beginning December 1, 1894, the information signals displayed at eta* 
tions on the Great Lakes will indicate the expected direction of the wind, 
whether easterly or westerly. The red pennant will i)e used to indicate 
easterly winds, and the white pennant westerly winds. Orders to hoist 
these signals will specify the expected direction. Attention is called to the 
tact that the information signal when used at Lake stations is not a notifi- 
cation that a storm is expected at other Lake stations, but as warning 
that winds dangerous to tows and small .vessels may occur at the station 
displaying this signal. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 

Instructions ) .— -, 

T^T \ Weather Bureau, 

No. 120. ) ' 

Washington, D. C, December^ 6 1894. 

In addition to the Information and Storm signals at present in use by 
this Bureau, the adoption of an additional wind signal, to be known as 
the " Hurricane Signal," is hereby announced, to take effect January 1, 
1895. 

This signal will consist of two red flags with black centers, displayed 
one above the other, and will be used to announce the expected approach 
of tropical hurricanes, and also of those extremely severe and dangerous 
storms which occasionally move across the Lakes and the northern Atlantic 
coast. 

The flags will be the same as the one now used for the distinctive storm 
signal, the pennants being omitted. No distinctive night hurricane signal 
will be displayed, but when this signal is ordered during the day and i& 
not lowered or changed before dark, the night storm signal will be dis- 
played, the direction to be determined by the information contained in the 
message accompanying the order to hoist. 

(59) 

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60 DISTRESS SIGNALS. 

SIGNALS OF DIBTBE88. 

The Board of Trade gives notice that on and after the first of Novem- 
ber^ 1873, the following signals shall, in aocordance with the 18th section 
of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1873, be deemed to be signals of distress : 

In the Dasrtime. — ^The following signals, numbered 1, 2, and 3, when 
used or displayed together or separately, shall be deemed to be signals of 
distress in the dajtime : 

''1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

'^2. The International Code Signal of Distress, indicated N. C. 

"The Distant Signal, consisting of a square flag, having either above 
or below it a ball, or anything resembling a ball. 

" At Night. — The following signals, numbered I, 2, and 3, when used 
or displayed together or separately, shall be deemed to be signals of dis- 
tress at night : 

"1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

" 2. Flames on the ship (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, etc). 

" Rockets or shells of any color or description, fired one at a time, at 
short intervals." 

And "any master of a vessel who uses or displays, or causes or permits 
any person under his authority to use or display any of the said signals, 
except in the case of a vessel being in distress, shall be liable to pay com- 
pensation for any labor undertaken, risk incurred, or loss sustained in con- 
sequence of such signal having been supposed to be a sign^ of distress, 
and such compensation may, without prejudice to any other remedy, be 
recovered in the same manner in which salvage is recoverable." 



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U.S. WEATHER AND TEMPEIRATURE SIGNALS 



r 

I ram or 



fair weather. I ram or snow, 
stationary stationary 
temperature temperature 



local rain, 
stationary 
temperature 



U.S. INfORMATlON SIGNALS 



Hurricane 




Easterly 
winds 



Weste.'-ly 
winds 



cold wave 




fair weather, fair weather, 
warmer colder 



fr B. p- i. 

||warmer |jcolder warmer ||colder 

weather weathen weather with ' weather 

rain or snow rain or snow local rains local rai 



weather with fair weather, 
local rains cold wave 



wet weather, 
cold YiTave 




winds 



U.S.STORM SIGNALS 



S.Wly i|S.E'ly JN.Dy 
winds winds winds 



Flag's 8 feet square. Pennants 5 feet hoist and 12 feet fly. 
White centers 4 feet square, black centers 3 feet square. 

TAe Hurricane Signai tndieates the expected appr&acA of cl tropical hurricana or 

of one of the dangerous storms which occ^isionalfy move cuoross the luJoes. 

The. Storm Sifnai imlioates that, th^ storm is expected to br of marked violence 

and daniferoiLs to all daises of vcsseJs. 

The pennants when displaj-^'d a/one indicate the expected direction, of tiie win^. 

N I G HT S I G N A LS _-5y ruijiht a red hght will, indicate easter/y winds aiuL a- white 

h'iht ahove a red /ight. westerly winds. 



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CANADIAN STORM SIGNALS 




Da> 
Signal 



Ifdisptayed on Lakes 
Superior Erie or On- 
tario indicates : 



If displayed on Lake 
Huron op in Georgian 
Bay indicates e 



No. I 



No. 2 



Na3 



No.4 



a moderate gale is ex- 
pected at first from an 
Laaterly direction. 

a heavy flsle is expect- 
ed at first from s 
Westerly direction. 

a heavy gale is expect- 
ed at first from an 
Easterly direction. 

a heavy gale is expect- 
ed at first from a 
Westerly direction. 



a moderate ^flle \a ak- 
pected ^ first from 9 
Southerly direction 

a heavy fale ifl e^pe^^ 
ed at first from « 
Northeirty direction. 

a heavy ^le ia expect- 
ed at firsl from a 
Southerly direction. 

a heavy gsJo \^ expect- 
ed at first from a 
North ep>y direction. 



The C0179 when disjilayed^alaneindioates thai it is expect- 
ed'ffudi'&vewmAmllattainiatvdocfify of SBm^jes anhftur^ 
hut wiUnot exceed SSmSee, aneLHis not mtmd/sd 6^ indi^ 
ocEto-ffuBban ordinary. weBfyund'veesAshmddsta^ injK^ 
Initia simpfy cLwcBmm^ "ffuit siron^ wmds ar^ ^i^etytcd 
fro7n>'ffie ou/zrter indioated 

The Drum wMeibrqys Jfe Turisted when ^e ve&fciiy of^ie 
ytrindis expeicsliedte exceed 35 rnxles cat Jwur 

NIGHT SIGNALS 
The Ni^t Si^nef oarreepmida^ io Day Signets Nos.fand 
SistvoJaivtBnts'hangpnffanecdfave^heoffier. 
The N/ghfSi'ghef oarreepandmg te Da^ Signets Nos2and 
4- is two lanterns lumginff side hy sidei 



October and No¥ember are ^te manffis in wTdahsevere 
storms Tnostir'equervlfy occur an theZakes. 3t ^lese /all 
storms on lakes JSrie and Ontario, the wind almost mva^ 
riaUfy commences at-ffhe souffieOst and works -round 
0urwffhscfu0itoyiiestandnor0u¥eSt,and'0ve taneof'&te 
hardest hUrw is usudtfy when "ffie hcBrameter hegins to 
rise as -ffis wind gets aroundto-ffiB west. OnLakeBuron 
andin Georgian JBay. ffie wind, -ffunigh for ^leTnostpart 
(hanging as an ihe Lower Lakes.notunfiequervBly ofuuiges 
wiffi greatsuddmness, dufpping aAsraladLfixfm. soudtnSouSkr 
easttDTUMwaKst^widolowinghiBidej^asanu^nvntlheTUMtkwiBsti 



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CHAPTER VI. 



BRIEF RULES FOR THE USE OF OIL. 



(61) r- I 

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BBJEF RTTLES FOR THE USfi OF Oil* TO PRjOT»C»"fB»firBLS 

or STORirr ^WATERS. 

FronoL tbA paxe esssff- submitted to -die Hazabozg Haartical School 'bj- Captam. £L. 

Ekdowa. o£ -Qua Hambucg Ameticaxk. Steamslup Compaziy-. 

J^ Mtf E&e«£ratfi« fiffurea, Iho flowuiff Unas repretent Iho spreadr- 

■mg ail and tho arrows drnwU ^ta direction of &i» wind and mo. 



Kg.l 




Fi|.2 




Scnddin^ "before a gals, fi^are 1, difl- 
tribute oil from, the "baw lay Tnf>anH 
of oil-'bags or -diroTi^ -waste-pipes, 
it will HaoA spread, aft and ^cvb 
protectiozL lM>th. tccan. quartexizig and 
following seas. 

If only diAtTLbtited astexxiffi^are 2, 
there will "be no protection, fpom^ the 
quartering sea. 



K|3 



K|.4 




Bmrning "before agale^yawing'badly- 
and threatening to hroach-to.iigtLres 
3 and 4, oil should be distcLbnted 
from, the bow and fnacL both sides, 
abaft the beam. . 

In,fi^qre 3, for instam^ where it is 
only distrfbuted at the bow, the 
weather qnarter is left xinprotected 
^dien the ship yaws . 
In, ^^axe 4, howeyer^'with oil-ba^s 
%r abaft {he beam, as well as forward, 
the qoacter i£ protected.. 



Pig.5 




Lying-^, figure 5, a ^vessel caxL be 
brou^bt <do8er to the "wind, by xising 
one or two ail-ba^s fbrWard, to windr 
ward.. "V^th a hi^b. beam, sea^ use 
oil-ba^s along the weather sidis at 
intervals of 40 or 50 feet. 
In a haa^ cross-sea, figa2^e 6, as in 
the center of ahnrxicane, or after the 
center has passed^cil-bagB shooldbe 
hmi^ ont at regolar intervals along 
both sides. 




Drifting in the tcon^ of a lieacvy 
sea, figtires 7,a2Ld S.TLse oil from 
wikste-pipes forward and. bags on 
'Weather side, as in figore 8. 
These answBr the purpose very 
much better tlian one bag at -weather 
bowand one at lee quarter, although t 
this has been tried with soma suc-OQlC 
cess, see figdre 7. 



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Steaming iulo a luscL^Ty iLesbd-sesu 
fL^ore 9, Tue oil. ihrcmfiL forward 
doset-pipes . Oil-'ba^s irould "be 
tossed "back on deck. 
Lying-to; tt> tank op leBar, fi^ore 10, 
-use oil firam. -weathfiv hcrw. 
Graddn^ on.f'vrailLlii^h.'wixLdflibeaiKi. 
and. hBKvy sea« fi^uro U^ use oil 
troTXk. waste-pipes , weaQier l>ow. 




▲ yessel hcnr^-io fbr a pilot, figore 
12, slunild distribfite oil from the 
weather side and lee quarter. The 
pikyt-lbtoat rans xip to windward and 
lowers aboat, which. puUs down, to 
Leeward and arotcnd 'tibue yessel's 
stem.. The pilot-boat rozis down to 
leeward, gets cmt oil-ba^s to windr 
WH3Dd and on. her lee quarter, and 
the boat, pulls baok around.' ber 
stem., protected. Ijy the oil. The ves- 
sels drift to leeward azid leare an. 
oil-sliok'to windward, between the 
two. 



Eig.l2 




filocfioat 



Towing a-n other -vessel in a beaivy 
sea, oil is of llie greatest serrice/ 
and. ms^ prevent '€txB bawser firam 
breaking. Dislrilnxbe oil fpom. the 
towing Tess el, forward and on both 
sideSf figure 13. If only used, aft, 
the tow alone gets Ibe benefit. 



Pi|13 



Fi|.14 



m 



At annhofT in an open roadstead, 
use oil in bags firom jib-'boonL, or 
haul them out aluead. of the vessel 
by Tnewns of an endless rope to^b 
through a tail-block secured to 

fhB ^r}fiho v- r^^ir% , figure 14-. 



Dig^^fllv Google 



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CH AFTER VIL 

ANCHORING AND RIDING OUT GAL£S IN DEEP WATER* 



A general rule for anchoring is to give a scope of chain three times the 
depth of the water/ bat a safer role is to give five or even silt times the 
depth. 

In anchoriog^ it is desirable to lay the chain oat straight, clear of the 
tochor. This can be accomplished by keeping headway, or by giving th^ 
vessel sternboard before letting go. 

If anchoring in deep water it is best to lower the anchor into the water 
tintil its weight is taken by the chain, and then let go from the stopper 
inboard. In cases of anchoring in very deep water it is well to ease the 
anchor down to within ten or twenty fathoms of the bottom before letting 
go ; by doing this, command can be retained over the chain, and there is less 
danger of losing it. 

A long scope of chain acts as a buffer against the strain of sudden jerks 
on the anohor and chain, caused by the ship veering about, and rising or 
falling to the waves. The longer the scope the greater the resistance to 
this disturbing power. 

To increase the value of the long scope a heavy kiedge, or other weight, 
may be secured to the bight of the cable ; then veer out more chain ; this 
will bring the strain more in a horizontal direction at the anchor and pre* 
vent the latter from tripping. 

North Sea fishermen, in their small vessels, use a large cask on their 
cables during gales of wind, secured between the vessel and the anchor, 
in order to reduce the direct strain on the ground tackle. 

It is recommended to use an empty cask for this purpose, in case of need, 
and if arrangements are made for running out oil bags to the same before 
it is launched, the force of the sea will be much reduced, as shown in 
the article on the subject of oil. 

This barrel buoy serves two purposes ; the vessel in veering about rides 
more directly from the barrel buoy than from the anchor itself; hence 
there is less disturbing force brought upon the anchor, and less probability 
of fouling it 

By taking up the strain of the chain as the vessel rides up, it guards 
against the quick-snapping action on the chain when the vessel tautens it 

(67) 

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68 RIDING OUT GALES IN DEEP WATER. 

oat again, the buoy being dragged through the water oonnteracting in part 
this strain. 

Daring the war of the rebellion it was a common practice for vessels 
on blockading duty to ride out heavy gales of wind at sea, and on a lee 
shore, while at anchor, with a long scope of chain, and withoat asing oil. 
Admiral Porter's reports of the operations against Fort Fisher, on the coast 
of North Carolina, mention numerous instances of severe gales being 
encountered while at anchor at that point withoat any accident. 

EXTRACTS 

from the log books of several vessels daring the gale of December 20 and 
21, 1864, off Beaufort, North Carolina. 

U. S. S. Brooklyn: On December 15, anchored with starboard anchor in 
16 fathoms of water, veered to 45 fathoms of chain. On December 20 and 
21 the wind freshened gradually to a fresh gale from the SW. and a heavy 
sea made. Early on the morning of the 21st, veered to 75 fathoms and at 
noon to 100 fathoms. Started engines ahead slow to ease chain. Heavy 
sea. Ship rolling heavily. Force of wind 7-9. On the 23d, the gale 
abating, hove in to 50 fathoms. 

U. S. S. Colorado: Anchored on December 15, in 16 fathoms of water, 
veered to 60 fathoms of chain on starboard anchor. December 21, fresh 
gale, veered to 135 fathoms and started engines ahead slow. December 
23, hove up starboard anchor and found the arms broken ; let go port 
anchor. 

U. S. S. Tuscarora: Anchored December 19, in 10 fathoms, veered tO 
55 fathoms on starboard chain. December 21, ship dragging, veered to 90 
fathoms and steamed ahead slow. December 22, got underway, anchoring 
later in 11 fathoms with 90 fathoms of chain. ^ 

11,8.8, Juniata: Anchored in 13 fathoms of water with 45 fathoms of 
chain on starboard anchor, on December 19. On the 20th, a fresh gale 
blowing, with heavy sea running, veered to 60 fathoms. On the 21st, 
started to veer more chain. In veering parted stoppers, compressor bolt 
broke, and not being able to stop the chain, it tore the bolt out of the keel- 
son and parted the end lashing, thereby losing 150 fathoms of chain and 
an anchor weighing 2,450 pounds. Got under way and stood out. Saw 
that nearly all the vessels in the fleet had dragged or were dragging their 
anchors. Twenty-second, anchored at 10 a. m. in 14 fathoms of water 
with 75 fathoms of chain on port anchor. 

These vessels were out of sight of land and on a lee shore. 



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CHAPTER VIIL 

CURRENTS. 



Extract from the ^* Carrents of the Great Lakes^ as deduoed from the 
movements of Bottle I'apers daring the seasons of 1892 and 1893/' hj 
Mark W. Harrington, Chief of the Weather Bureau. 

The currents in the Great Lakes are grouped under three heads: 

1. The main currents : 

A general set of the water toward the outlet exists in each of the Great 
Lakes, forming a continuous current in that direction. 

The outlet of Lake Superior being on the southern side, this current 
hugs the southern shore. In Lake Michigan it hugs the eastern shore, 
the readiest access to the outlet being on that side, owing to the position of 
the islands at its northern end. The same rule holds good in Lake Huron 
as regards the western shore. In Lakes Erie and Ontario this phenomenon 
is not so plainly marked. 

2. Surface currents: 

These are due to the prevailing winds which have always been recog- 
nized as influencing the motion of currents in large bodies of water. 

3. Return currents: 

The outlets of the lakes being small and insufficient for the escape of 
all the water banked up by the wind, return currents are inevitable. 

The theory has often been propounded that many ocean currents arise 
from the above cause ; the water driven before the wind making the cur- 
rent, and the piled-up water seeking an escape, forming the return 
current. 

OTHER FEATURES. 

Barometric changes, as well as other meteorological phenomena, may 
have an influence on the currents of the Great Lakes. A high pressure of 
the barometer lying over the southern end of Lake Michigan, for instance> 
will lower the water at that point, causing a difference of surface level 
between the two ends of the lake and a resulting flow of water to the 
southward. Such conditions, however, could hardly endure for any great 
length of time. 

There also occurs occasionally on the Great Lakes a phenomenon which 
is called a *^ Seiche. '* 

(69) ^ , 

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70 CURRENTS. 

^^ These seiches* are aninodal^ stationary vibrations of lake water. 
They appear in the form of waves, which alternately raise and depress the 
water of the lake on each side of the nodal line of the oscillation. * * * 

^^ As the area of the Great Lakes is so large, the uninodal seiche would 
naturally be of infrequent occurrence, as a powerful blow must be struck 
on a comparatively large area to produce it. 

^'But this uninodal vibriatron does exist on the Great Lakes. Gen. C. 
B. Comstock states in the United States Chief of Engineer's Report for 
1872, p. 1040, that there is a wave constantly passing between Milwaukee 
and Grand Haven on Lake Michigan. The tide gauges show that there 
are eleven great waves per day at each of these places, and the waves have 
a period of a trifle over two houre. 

* • 4e t¥ 4k 4k 4k 4* 

'^ A tracing of the tide gauge at Grand Haven, Mich., for the month of 
April, 1893, shows a two hour and twelve-minute period with great 
exactness. Every day in the month this period can be distinguished, 
although on some days it is almost obliterated by minute seiches, or 
''embroidery,'' while a crest is often marked by another superposed seiche 
in stormy weather ; but the succeeding crest appears after the two-hour 
period. * ♦ ♦ 

"In his report for 1872, General Comstock cites some remarkable seiches 
observed by Major Wilson at Oswego. The first one occurred on June 
13, 1872. Its period was from twenty to thirty minutes, and during its 
continuance a white squall passed to the north, over the lake, accompanied 
by a small waterspout. An employee of the survey, who happened to be 
out on the lake, reported that he heard strange noises, bubbles came to the 
top of the water, and the fish rose to the surface as if stunned. * * * 

"On Friday morning, April 7, 1893, the port of Chicago was visited by 
a tide wave, bore, a phenomenon called seiches, or in plain terms, a sudden 
vertical motion of the water in the southern portion of Lake Michigan, 
for it appears the wave swept over the beach at St. Joseph, Midi., 700 
feet back from the high-water mark, the vertical rise at that point being 
given as 4 feet, a report which is duly authenticated from Chicago. At the 
latter port a recurring wave, which also characterized the St. Joseph 
phenomenon, caused great damage to the shipping and called forth the 
assistance of tugs and port officials to secure the disabled vessels broken 
adrift through the force of the tidal wave. * * * 

"The following extract from a letter of H. C. Frankenfield, local fore- 
cast official at Chicago, will perhaps give a good idea of the weather 
conditions there on April 7, the date of the above-mentioned seiche : 

" ^ High winds commenced about 2.30 p. m., April 6, blowing steadily 
from the SE. until 1.30 a. m., April 7, when they shifted to NNE.> 

* Extracts from an article on "The Seiche in America/* by E. A. Perkins. Published in the American 
Meteorological Journal, October, 1893. 



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I 



LING CURRENTiS 

IN 

t HURON 

of the U. S. Wea.tli.er Burea-u 

L 

80* 



-isT 



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SEICHES. 71 

blowing from that quarter until 4 a. m., when they again went to SE. 
The velocity varied from 30 miles per hour at 2.30 p. m., April 6, to 43 
miles per hour at 1.50 a. m.> April 7. 

"*The wave occurred between 1.30 and 1.45 a. m., April 7, and its 
height was from 4 to 6 feet. The damage done was principally to vessels 
anchored in the river. Several were torn from their moorings and carried 
toward the lake^ causing numerous collisions with other vessels. Some 
were carried out into the lake* I do not think the wave was preceded by 
smallel* ones, but judging from the barometric oscillations after the prin- 
cipal wave, there must have been several smaller ones during the next 
two hours. These waves occur from time to time, and I have observed 
that they always occur at the time of a sudden and decided rise or fall in 
the barometer.' * * * 

" I have received accounts of several minor seiches on the Great Lakes, 
but nothing that will bear comparison with the great seiche of April 7, 
1893. This seems to be one of the largest oscillations ever observed on 
the lakes. It is to be regretted that synchronous observations of this 
phenomenon were not taken by tide gauges at different points on the shore. 

^* As to the forecasting of seiches, this can not be done with accuracy until 
we obtain further knowledge of the bore, and ascertain by numerous baro- 
graphs the advance of sudden changes in the pressure of the atmosphere." 

From the preceding remarks it will be seen that the steadiness and persis- 
tence of the lake currents have not yet been determined accurately. 
Their velocities have been found to vary in speed from 4 to 12 miles a 
day. 

The prevalence of westerly and southwesterly winds favor the strength 
and persistence of these currents, and it must be remembered that when 
the motion of the surface water has been communicated to the strata below, 
a brief change of wind, while affecting the surface, is not so soon communi- 
cated to the underlying water. 

CURRENTS IN LAKE HURON. 

The currents in Lake Huron differ from those in Lake Michigan, in 
having the main current along the west coast instead of the east coast. 
This current along the west coast is strong some distance out, and extends 
the length of the lake, turning near the south end and passing up the 
east coast. There is also a return current passing not far south of Mani- 
toulin Island and at some distance from the coast. At the NW. end of 
the lake there are also signs of a return current. 

A current passses into Great Saginaw Bay and a current which some- 
times attains a strength of J knot an hour passes into Georgian Bay by the 
main entrance. 



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CHAPTER IX. 

LIFE-SAVING SERVICE. 



[Ixtmct from a lecture read before the Oommlttee of Llfe^ying Sjftema and Derlcet. Intematfonal 
Harine Oonferenoe, Xovember 22, 1889, by Sumner I. Kimball, General Superintendent of the United States 
Idfe-SaTing Service.] 

The cluster of inland seas known as the Great Lakes contains an area 
of about 80,000 square miles, and has a coast line within the limits of the 
United States of nearly 2,500 miles. These seas are open to navigation 
about eight months in the year, at other times being closed by ice, 
although one or two steamers cut their way across Lake Michigan at 
intervals throughout the winter. There are few natural harbors, but a 
large number of artificial ones. These are formed at the mouths of the 
rivers by extending piers from their banks out into the lake for a consider- 
able distance and dredging the bottom between. The lakes are generally 
tranquil, but at certain seasons are visited by violent gales, which throw 
their fresh waters into furious convulsion with a suddenness unknown 
upon the ocean. Vessels unable to hold their own against the severity of 
these storms, being landlocked and with scant sea room, are likely to be 
left with only the choice between stranding wherever they may be driven 
and seeking refuge in the harbor that seems most accessible. The latter 
course is naturally the one taken. To effect an entrance within the narrow 
space between the piers at such times with sailing vessels, and even with 
steamers, is frequently a task of extreme difficulty, and the luckless craftare 
liable to strand upon the bar on one or the other side of the piers and meet 
their destruction. At some of these harbors many disaster^ occur in a 
single day. 

The numerous severe gales attending the opening and closing of navi- 
gation in the early spring and late fall cause great numbers of wrecks 
from the enormous shipping of the lakes. As the sirandings usually occur 
near the harbors, however, the number of staticms required is not so large 
as it would be if they were distributed more generally on the lakes. 
The number at present is forty-five. 

In the majority of stations the first floor is divided into four rooms ; a 
boat room, a mess room (also serving for a sitting room for the men), a 
keeper^s room, and a storeroom. Wide, double-leafed doors and a slop- 
ing platform extending from the sills to the ground permit the running 
out of the heavier equipments from the building. The second story 
contains two rooms; one is the sleeping room of the men, the other has 

(72) 

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DESCRIPTION. 73 

spare CQts for rescued people and is also used for storage. The more 
commodious stations have two additional rooms — a spare room and a 
kitchen. In localities where good water can not be otherwise obtained 
cisterns are provided for water caught from the roof. There surmounts 
every station a lookout or observatory, in which a day watch is kept. 
The roofs upon the stations on those portions of the coast exposed to view 
from the sea are usually painted dark red, which makes them distinguish- 
able a long distance off shore. They are also marked by a flagstaff 60 
feet high, used in signaling passing vessels by the international code. 

The stations (other than the house of refuge) are generally equipped 
with two surfboats (supplied with oars, lifeboat compass, and other 
outfits), a boatcarriage, two sets of breeches-buoy apparatus (including a 
Lyle gun and accessories), a cart for the transportation of the apparatus, 
a dozen signal rockets, a set of the signal flags of the international code, 
a medicine chest with contents, a barometer, a thermometer, patr6l lanterns, 
patrol checks or patrol clocks, the requisite furniture for rude housekeep- 
ing by the crew and for the succor of rescued people, fuel and oil, tools for 
the repair of the boats and apparatus, and for minor repairs to the build- 
ings, and the necessary books and stationery. At some of the stations 
the Hunt gun and projectiles are supplied, and at a few the Cunningham 
rocket apparatus. To facilitate the transportation of boats and apparatus 
to scenes of shipwreck, a pair of horses is also provided at stations where 
they can not be hired, and to those stations where the supplies, mails, etc., 
have to be brought by water a supply boat is furnished. 

The few lake stations located upon the sand beaches are similar in all 
respects to those upon the seacoast, but those situated at the harbors differ 
from them in that room is provided for a heavy lifeboat and for a small 
boat, for quick work in the immediate vicinity of the station. The 
buildings are usually located not far from the water^s edge, behind one of 
the piers of crib work forming the sides of the harbor entrance. An 
inclined platform, upon which are laid two tramways for the launching of 
the boats, extends from the boat room down to the water through an open- 
ing cut in the pier. Cradles or cars are provided on which the boats are 
kept mounted, and by which they can be put afloat with the men at their 
oars in half a minute. Exit from the surf boat wagon and apparatus cart 
is also provided in the rear of the building, in caae it should be necessary 
to transport them along the shore. These stations usually have telephone 
connection with the systems of the adjacent towns. 

The law provides that the stations on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts shall 
be opened and manned for active service from the first day of September in 
each year until the first day of the succeeding May, and those on the lake 
coasts from the opening to the close of navigation, usually from about the 
16th of April to about the 15th of December. 

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74 LIFE-SAVING SERVICE. 

For the purpose of watch and patrol the district officers establish patrol 
limits as far as practicable along the coast in both directions from the sta- 
tions, marking them by distinct monuments^ and a description of the beats 
thus laid out is sent to the office of the general superintendent. The day 
watch is kept from sunrise to sunset by a surfman daily assigned to this 
duty^ who is usually stationed in the lookout, and who, if the patrol limits 
can not be seen from there, goes at least three times a day far enough along 
the shore to bring them into view. During thick and stormy weather a 
complete patrol like that at night is maintained. At the harbor stations 
on the lakes, at the river station at Louisville, and at other places where 
accidents are frequent, there is donnected with the lookout a gong, by means 
of which the crew is alarmed when occasion requires. The day watch keeps 
a record of all passing vessels. 

For the night patrol the night is divided into four watches — one from 
sunset to 8 o'clock, one from 8 to 12, one from 12 to 4, and one from 4 to 
sunrise. Two surfmen are designated for each watch. When the hour 
for their patrol arrives they set out in opposite directions along the coast, 
keeping as near as practicable to the shore, as far as the ends of their 
respective beats. If within communicating distance from an adjacent 
station, each patrolman proceeds until he meets another from the next 
station, and gives him a metallic check marked with his station and crew 
number, receiving in exchange a similar one. The checks thus collected 
are examined by the keeper, recorded in the journal, and returned to their 
proper stations the next night. If a patrolman fails to meet his fellow 
from the adjacent station, after waiting a reasonable length of time at the 
usual place of meeting, he continues his journey until he either meets him 
or reaches that station and ascertains the cause of the failure, which, on 
his return, he reports to his keeper, who makes a record of it in his journal. 

At isolated stations each patrolman is required to carry a clock, within 
which is fixed a dial that can be marked only by means of a key which 
also registers the time of marking. This key is secured to a post at the 
end of his beat, and he is required to reach it and bring back the dial prop- 
erly marked. 

Each patrolman is equipped with a beach lantern and several red Cos- 
ton hand lights. Upon the discovery of a wreck, a vessel in distress, or 
one running dangerously near the shore, he ignites by percussion his hand 
light, which emits a brilliant red flame. This serves the double purpose 
of warning the people on the vessel of their danger and of assuring them 
of succor if they are already in distress. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO MARINERS IN CASE OF SHIPWRECK. 

The accompanying information is compiled from a pocket manual, enti- 
tled " Instructions to Marines in case of Shipwreck,^' issued by the United 



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GENERAL INFORMATION — SIGNALS. ' 76 

States Life-Saving Service. A knowledge of the facts here stated may be 
of vital importance in case of shipwreck, and should be familiar to every 
navigator along our coasts. 

GENERAL INFORMATION, 

Life-saving stations, lifeboat stations, and houses of refuge are located 
upon the Atlantic and Pacific seaboard of the United States, the Gulf of 
Mexico, and the Lake coasts. 

All stations upon the Pacific Coast are open and manned the year around, 
with the exception of the station at Cape Arago, which depends upon vol- 
unteer effort from the neighboriog people in case of shipwreck. 

All life-saving and lifeboat stations are fully supplied with boats, wreck 
guns, beach apparatus, restoratives, etc. 

Houses of refuge are supplied with boats, provisions, and restoratives, 
but not manned by crews; a keeper, however, resides in eadi throughout 
the year, who, after every storm, is required to make extended excursions 
along the coast, with a view of ascertaining if any shipwreck has occurred 
and finding and succoring any persons that may have been cast ashore. 

Masters are particxdarly caiUioned, if they should be driven ashore any- 
where in the neighborhood of the stations, especially on any of the sandy 
coasts where there is not much danger of vessels breaking up immediately, to 
remain on board until assistance arrives, and under no circumstances 
should they attempt to land through the surf in their own boais until the 
last hope of assistance from the shore has vanished. 

SPECIAL SIGNALS RETWEEN SHIP AND SHORE. 

The following signals, approved by the International Marine Confer- 
ence convened at Washington in October, 1889, have been adopted by the 
Life-Saving Service, and will be used and recognized by the ofl5cers and 
employees as occasion may require: 

"Upon the discovery of a wreck by night, the life-saving force will 
bum a red pyrotechnic light or a red rocket to signify — *You are seen; 
assistance will be given as soon as possible.' 

"A red flag waved on shore by day, or a red light, red rocket, or red 
Roman candle displayed by night, will signify — ^Haul away.' 

" A white flag waved on shore by day, or a white light slowly swung 
back and forth, or a white rocket, or white Roman candle fired by night, 
will signify — ^ Slack away.' 

"Two flags, a white and a red, waved at the same time on shore by day, 
or two lights, a white and a red, slowly swung at the same time, or a blue 
pyrotechnic light burned by night, will signify — *Do not attempt to land 
in your own boats. It is impossible.' 



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76 UFE-SAVING SERVICE. 

" A man on shore beckoning by day, or two torches burning near together 
by night, will signify — ^This is the best place to land/ 

"Any of these signals may be answered from the vessels as follows: In 
the daytime, by waving a flag, a handkerchief, a hat, or even the hand; at 
night, by firing a rocket, a blue light, or a gun, or by showing a light over 
the ship's gunwale for a short time, and then concealing it/' 

INSTBUCnONS. 
Rescue with the Lifeboat or Surf boat. 
The patrolman, after discovering your vessel ashore and burning a Coston 
signal, hastens to his station for assistance. If the use of a boat is practi- 
cable, either the large lifeboat is launched from its ways in the station and 
proceeds to the wreck by water, or the lighter surf boat is hauled overland 
to a point opposite the wreck and launched, as circumstances may require. 
BesciLe with the Breeches Buoy or Life Car, 

Should it be inexpedient to use either the lifeboat or surf boat, recourse 
will be had to the wreck gun and beach apparatus for the rescue by the 
breeches buoy or the life car. 

A shot with a small line attached will be fired across your vessel. Get 
hold of the line as soon as possible and haul on board until you get a tail 
block with a whip or endless line rove through it. This tail block should 
be hauled on board as quickly as possible to prevent the whip drifting off 
with the set or fouling with wreckage, etc. Therefore, if you have been 
driven into the rigging, where but one or two men can work to advantage, 
cut the shot liiie and run it through some available block, such as the 
throat or peak-halyards block, or any block which will afford a clear lead, 
or even between the ratlines, that as many as possible may assist in hauling. 

Attached to the tail block will be a tally board with the following direc- 
tions in English on one side and French on the other: 

"Make the tail of the block fast to the lower mast, well up. If the 
masts are gone, then to the best place you can find. Cast off shot line, 
see that the rope in the block runs free, and show signal to the shore." 

RECAPITULATION. 

Remain by the wreck until assistance arrives from the shore, unless your 
vessel shows signs of immediately breaking up. 

If not discovered immediately by the patrol, bum rockets, flare up, or 
other lights, or, if the weather is foggy, fire guns. 

Take particular care that there are no turns of the whip-line round the 
hawser before making the hawser fast. 

Send the women, children, helpless persons, and passengers ashore first. 

Make yourself thoroughly familiar with these instructions, and remember 
that on your coolness and strict attention to them will greatly depend the 
chances of success in bringing you and your people safely to land. 

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Thtt foregoing Instmctloiis being complied witb, the result will be shown in 
Figure 1. 

AS soon as yonr signal is seen a three-inch hawser will be bent on to the whip 
and hauled off to your ship by the life-saying crew. 

If circumstances will admit, you can assist the life-saving crew by manning 

that part of the whip to which the hawser is bent and hauling with them. 

when the end of the hawser is got on board a tally-board will be 

found attached, bearing the following directions in English on 

one side and French on the other. 

" Make this hawser fast about two feet above the tall- 
block, see all clear and that the rope in the block 
runs free, and show signal to the shore/' 





These instructions being obeyed, the result will be shown in Figure 8. Take par- 
titular care that thm^ are twtvriu of the whip4in4ar<>und the haw$€r. 7\fpreoeiU 
this tote the end of the haweer up bbtwkbn the parts of the whip b^ort 
making U/aet, When the hawser is made fast, the whip cast off 
from the hawser, and your signal seen by the lue-saving 
crew, they will haul the hawser taut and by means^ 
the whip will haul off to your ship a breeches-buoy 
J. suspended from a traveler-block, or a life-car 

^^^^i^lvv^ from rlnga, running on the hawser. 



^^-^ 



Figures. 



Figure S represents the apparatus rigged, with the breeches-buoy hauled off to the ship. If 
the breeches-buoy be sent, let one man immediately get into it, thrusting his legs through 
the breeches. If the life-car, remove the hatch, place as many 
persoiu Into it as it will hold (four to six), and secure the 
b&u?h on the outside by the hatch-bar and hook, signal as 
before, and the buoy or car will be hauled ashore. 
This will be repeated until all are landed. On the 
last trip of the life-car the hatch must be secured 
by the inside hatch-bar. In many instances two 
men can be landed in the breeches-buoy at the 
>K same time by each putting a leg through a leg 
^ of the breeches and holding on to the lifts of the 
buoy. 

Children, when brought ashore by the buov, 
should be in the arms of older persons or securely 
lashed to the buoy. 
Women and children should be landed first. 




*i>vi.:? 



Figures. 



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CHAPTER X^ 

GENERAL INFORMATION. 



The publications of the United States Hydrographic Office for the use of 
mariners^ comprise charts, sailing directions, and light lists, also special 
books and pamphlets, issued from titne to time. They are subject to fre- 
quent correction, for information relative to changes in natural and arti- 
ficial features received subsequent to the date of publication." 

The scheme of chart publication embraces three general classes of charts : 

1. General or Sadlmg Charts, which cover a large area, and are, 

therefore, on a comparatively small scaJe. These are used for laying down 

routes and proceeding along them. They are for general cruising pur- 



2. Coast Charts, which cover less area than the general or sailing 
charts, and are commonly on a larger Scale. They are used for coasting, 
and for making and leaving the land. 

3. Harbor Charts are special charts of localities, and are intended for 
piloting, and for various other local purposes. 

For example: A vessel at sea and out of sight of land would use a 
general or sailing chart. On sighting land, the coast chart would be 
resorted to, and for entering harbor,, the harbor chart would be used. 

Sailing directions give additional information, to supplement that con- 
tained on the charts, and in greater detail. Light lists also supplement 
the chailB by giving fuller information relative to lights and fog signals. 
There are also buoy lists published, which give, according to the latest 
information, the position and character of buoys, beacons, and day marks. 
These lists serve as checks upon the correctness of the charts. 

The eflFort of the Hydrographic Office is to issue charts which shall be 
correct up to the date of issue, so far as information at hand permits. In 
the use of all Hydrographic Office publications, the date of issue should 
be considered. 

Light Lists, published by the Hydrographic Office, which have been 
corrected for the latest information, are also issued. In cases where light 
lists published by other departments or nations are issued, the Hydro- 
graphic Office is not responsible for their correctness. 

Sailing Directions can not, from their nature, be kept fully corrected 

by the Hydrographic Office by the insertion of slips, etc. Their dat« of 

10988 6 (77) nr^i^rf]o 

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78 GENERAL INFORMATION. 

issue should always be carefully considered, and where they diflFer from 
charts of later issue, the chart should be taken as the guide. 

Notice to Majiners. — In order that charts, sailing directions, etc., may 
bfe corrected for information received at the Hydrographic Office subse- 
quent to the date of issue, weekly publications, styled ^* Notices to Mariners," 
are issued by the Hydrographic Office to the public free of charge. The 
Notices to Mariners contain brief itemized statements of special information 
received. The items are in such shape that they may be cut from the 
Notices to Mariners and pasted in books, on charts, and in the Light Lists. 
The Notices to Mariners also mention the publications that are affected by 
the several items of information. A list of charts issued and cancelled by 
the Hydrographic Office, and of the books published, is given in the first 
notice of each month. 

It is seen that this scheme of supply and information assumes that 
navigators will keep themselves supplied with Notices to Mariners, Supple- 
ments, Light Lists, etc., in order that they may keep publications already in 
their possession corrected for the latest information. Notices to Mariners 
are supplied' from the main Hydrographic Office, in the Navy Department, 
at Washington, D. C, or from any of the Branch Hydrographic Offices, of 
which there are twelve. The Branch Hydrographic Offices upon the 
Great Lakes are in the Masonic Temple at Chicago, and in the Arcade 
Building at Cleveland. 

For the correction of Sailing Directions, supplements to the several 
volumes are published from time to time. 

THE USE OF CHABT8. 

It is obvious that the value of a chart can never be greater than the 
value of the survey from which it is made. A correct chart can not be 
made from an incorrect survey. Given an ftccurate survey, the appear- 
ance or character of a chart may be varied to suit the taste or need of those 
interested in its use. For mariners, all needless detail is commonly dis- 
carded in order that the information contained upon the chart may be 
impressed quickly upon the mind. Although the charts of the Great 
Lakes, as a rule, proceed from painstaking surveys, this is not true of all 
charts, especially certain charts of foreign coasts. To the experienced eye, 
the appearance of a chart affords a good basis of judgment as to its trust- 
worthiness. In scanning a chart to judge of its value, certain points 
should be noticed, viz : the date of the survey and by whom the survey 
was made; the date of issue of the chart; the date at which it has received 
general correction, and the date at which it has received special corrections. 
As a rule it may be said that recent surveys are more accurate than those 
made many years ago. In many places the character of the bottom under- 
.goes change, making resurveys necessary. For such places an old chart 

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THE USE OF CHARTS. 79 

should be accepted with caution. Where charted soundings are distributed 
evenly over a certain are^, but are well opened out one from another^ it 
does not mean necessarily that the soundings shown are all that were 
taken during the survey. The Hydrographic Office engraves upon its 
charts only characteristic soundings^ and discards for the purpose of chart 
making soundings which are superfluous. If^ on a chart intended to show 
details, there are no soundings placed over certain areas where they would 
ordinarily be expected to appear, it may mean that no survey has been 
made of the vacant areas. It is oflen the case, however, that soundings 
are not shown beyond a certain depth of water. 

Even in the best surveys a detached pinnacle of rock or other 
submerged danger may not be discovered. This applies especially to 
rocky coasts and to the vicinity of outlying rocks. As a rule, therefore, 
rocky shores and patches should be given a reasonable l)erth. In using 
a chart, the notes printed upon it should be carefully read. It may be 
that charts published by different offices are based upon different plans. 
For example, one may refer to magnetic courses, and the other to true 
courses; one may give the bearings of an object on shore as taken from 
the vessel, and the other the bearing of the vessel from the object onshoi'e. 
In respect to seaboard charts, one may give depths for mean low water, 
while tlie soundings on the other may refer to low water of spring tidei?, 
etc. It should also be noted whether the soundings indicate fathoms or 
feet. In some cases fathoms only are used; in others, only feet; 
while in other cases feet are designated to depths of three (3) fathoms, 
beyond which fathoms are shown. In the last case the water areas in 
depths less than three (3) fathoms or eighteen (18) feet, are dotted or 
"sanded.'^ 

DISTORTION OF CHARTS. 

Charts printed from copperplates are subject to distortion. They are 
printed necessarily on dampened paper. By reason of the dampness the 
paper has expanded, especially in one direction; that is to say, in the 
direction in which the fiber of the paper runs. The dimensions of the 
printed chart coincide with those of the plate immediately after leaving 
the press, but, in drying, the paper contracts to its original dimensions, 
thus distorting the printed matter. Different degrees of dampness 
produce different degrees of distortion. It may be, therefore, that charts 
printed from the same chart plate at different times and under different 
conditions of dampness, will not coincide in all their parts, if one is 
superimposed on the other. When this distortion takes place the compass 
and graduated scales on the chart are distorted in the same ratio as other 
naatter, hence, for the purposes of navigation, no harm is likely to result 
from the use of plate-printed charts. 

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80 GENERAL INFORMATION. 

As a rule, a chart of the largest scale available should be used for 
coasting and piloting. For pursuing an extended route with plenty of 
sea room^ there is an advantage in using a chart covering greater area on 
which both the port of destination and of departure are shown. It should 
be remembered, however, that in laying down a position from compass 
bearings, a small error of observation, when plotted, is likely to result in 
less displacement of position on a chart of a large scale than on one 
of a small scale. In one case it may reach only yards, and in the other a 
considerable fraction of a mile. In laying off compass bearings on the 
chart for fixing a position, bearings on near objects should be used in 
preference to those on remote objects, because an error in observing the 
bearing of an object by compass, would have greater effect if continued on 
the chart through a long distance than thr6ugh a short distance. Light 
Lists should always be referred to, as well as the chart, in order to obtain 
full details of lights. Buoy Lists of the latest issue should also be used to 
note, when visiting a strange port, if the buoys have been plotted upon 
the chart according to the latest position assigned to them. In using a 
Light List it should be remembered, in respect to the range of visibility 
of a light, as given therein, that it is true only for a certain height of the 
eye above the water. This is commonly about fifteen (15) feet. If the 
eye is higher, the light should be seen farther in clear weather, and if the 
eye is lower, the reverse should be the case. Commonly, the meaning is, 
that with the eye fifteen (15) feet above water, the light will dip below the 
horizon when the observer is a greater distance from the light than that 
of the tabulated range of visibility. Sometimes, however, a light may be 
so high above the water that the rule as to the range of visibility would 
give a range beyond the carrying power of the light itself. In such cases 
the range of visibility is oftentimes assigned on the basis of the power of 
the light. A good idea of the power of the light may be formed from 
noting its order as given in the Light List. 

TOG SIGNAI^. 

In respect to fog signals, it is almost impossible to lay down any rule 
as to the range of audibility. The intensity of the sound and its apparent 
direction are very much influenced by the wind, and to such an extent 
that the signal may be heard from a remote distance and yet be inaudible 
or very fidnt when nearer. Mariners should beware of placing implicit 
confidence in fog signals. 

vessel's position. 

Good nautical practice requires that the master of a vessel shall know 
continuously the position of his vessel. In well-known channels or lanes 
of travel, simple visual observation may give him this information close 
enough for practical purposes; otherwise, he must resort to the use of 
his nautical charts and instruments. It is especially important that a 

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vessel's position. 81 

vessel's position should be accurately plotted upon a chart when thick 
weather shuts out the landmarks. On extended cruises at sea astronomical 
observations are the main resort of navigators for finding position, but 
when land is in sight closer results are obtained from compass bearings 
of landmarks or angular intervals between them, as ascertained by 
observations on board the vessel. This latter practice embraces two 
distinct operations. First, taking the observation with the proper 
instruments of navigation. Second, plotting the results of the observation 
upon the chart to ascertain the position. The Hydrographic Office charts 
are plentifully supplied with compass ^^roses,'' which give both true and 
magnetic bearings, marked both for d^rees and for compass points. 

In using a chart, the theory is that the chart represents with sufficient 
accuracy a certain area of the surface of the globe over which the vessel 
is to pursue her way, and that by geometrical processes, very simple in 
principle, the mariner reproduces upon the chart the actuaP progress of his 
vessel along the surface of the globe. Upon the chart various landmarks 
are printed, all being correctly placed in their mutual relation. If at any 
time the master of a vessel takes a compass bearing of each of two 
charted landmarks, and then by means of the compass rose, plots or 
draws the bearings upon the chart, the intersection of the two plotted 
lines of bearing, if the objects have been suitably chosen, will intersect 
upon the chart in the position which corresponds to the actual position 
of the vessel in the water or upon the globe. 

In taking compass bearings it should be borne in mind that certain 
disturbing influences enter : First, bearings taken with any compass 
whatever, give only what is called the magnetic bearing of the object, and 
not the true bearing. This disturbance is caused by the magnetism of the 
earth, which varies with the locality. To correct any bad results that 
might proceed from this cause, some charts are provided with lines or 
figures showing the amount of the magnetic variation in certain localities, 
and also with compass roses, in different portions of the diart, arranged 
to correspond with the actual compass in each place, if the compass were 
not otherwise influenced than by the magnetism of the earth. When 
the compass is not otherwise influenced, magnetic observations taken by 
means of the ship's compass, may be laid off on the chart by using the 
magnetic compass roses. Second, in using compass bearings to obtain the 
ship's position, note must be taken of the error which arises from the effect 
upon her compass of the iron on board at the time of taking the bearings. 
This is serious because it differs for different ships, and even for the same 
ship with a different cargo, or a different arrangement of cargo, when 
iron enters into the question. It is oftentimes very great in amount, but 
may be corrected by mechanical means so as to be confined within 
reasonable limits, so long as the amount and disposition of the iron on 

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§2 GEINEBAL lUFrfaMATION. 

bo&r4 renutins unchanged. If the iron, however, is changed, the local 
deviation, that is US say, the deviation due to the iron on board the ship^ 
i»ay. also change, and very greatly. In order to use compass bearings 
effectively, for ascertaining the position of a ship, her local deviation on 
each course, or on eaph heading of the ship, should be known and applied, 
since it varies with the course of the ship. 

Several methods of obtaining position by means of compass bearings 
will be given, also the method by means of ^' horizontal angles/' The 
latter, although not widely practiced by mariners, is incomparably the 
safer method, especially in order to get a very accurate position of the 
vessel when the probability of thick weather warns the navigator that he 
may be obliged to continue his way upon the chart without landmarks 
in sight, and that he should have a well defined position from which to 
take a departure. This method eliminates the question of compass error. 

Frequently landmarks which are in range, if accurately charted, afford 
a certain and handy means for obtaining a position. For example, a ship 
may proceed upon one range which leads over a route or through a channel 
until she arrives upon another range, when she may perhaps change her 
tx)ur8e. A chart upon which these ranges are laid down gives at a glance 
the intersection of the ranges, and therefore, the position of the vessel at 
the time when both ranges were on. 

When the chart is aecuratei one compass bearing, or a range, taken in 
connection with a sounding, may at times give a very trustworthy position, 
the place of the vessel being pricked off upon the chart where the lines 
of bearing, or the range line, cuts the depth of water found by getting 
oasts of the lead aboard the vessel. 

' Another method is by noting when two obgects are in range, and then 
taking with a sextant or alidade, marked to degrees, at least, the horizon- 
tal angle at the vessel between the objects in range and a third object 
conveniently situated. The range is then penciled upon the chart and the 
angle laid off by means of a metal protractor, ot a protractor printed upon 
tracing paper. 

Cross-compass bearings on two landmarks have already been mentioned. 
When the local deviation of the compass is known, this method, it must 
be admitted, is more frequently used than any other ; but when the 
vessel has much rolling or pitching motion, compass bearings are difficult 
to take, entirely aside from the question of local deviation. In plotting 
lines of bearings, the mutual relations of the lines representing angles or 
intersections must be considered. If the lines converge sharply upon the 
chart, that is to say, if the angle between the lines is small, the lines will 
run along each other so as to make the actual point of intersection 
difficult to ascertain. It is necessary, therefore, to choose such objects on 
shore as will give a good intersection of lines upon the. chart. The 

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VESSEL S POSITION. 



83 



perfect intersection is when the lines cross at an angle of 8 compass points 
or 90°. Two compass points, or 22° 30', is considered too small, or, at 
feast, barely acceptable. 

Sometimes a compass bearing of a single object on shore may be taken 
and combined with the horizontal angle at the vessel between that landmark 
and some other landmark which is shown upon the chart. 

The best method, as already stated, because it entirely avoids compass 
errors, is that by two horizontal angles known *among mariners as the 
** three point problem.'' For the purpose of observation there is needed 
a sextant, which, by the way, may be used by any one reasonably expert, 
even when a vessel is rolling and pitching heavily, or an alidade mounted 
upon a compass or otherwise mounted, and graduated to degrees, at least. 
By means of the sextant or the alidade, the horizontal angle, at the vessel, 
between two objects upon the land, known to be charted, is observed, and 
in connection therewith there is also observed at the same time a second 
angle at the vessel between one of these two landmarks and a third land- 
mark also charted. By means of a metal or horn protractor, or a 
protractor printed upon tracing paper, these two angles may be transferred 
to the chart by so placing the sides of the angles that the several sides 
shall fall respectively upon the proper landmarks at the same time. The 
common apex of the angles is then the position of the ship for the time 
the angles were observed. This is the common method employed in 
surveying to determine the positions of the soundings which are to be 
placed upon the charts for the use of navigators. Habitual resort to this 
method will very much enhance the safety of the vessel. 

Certain handy problems, in which the run of the vessel enters, are also 
employed to obtain the position of the ship from the observation of a 
single landmark. These are given and illustrated as follows: 




In figure 1, a vessel proceeding on her way from A to B takes a bearing 
of the landmark L when it bears 4 points on the bow, that is to say, 4 

Note.— This is demonstrated as follows : The angle LBA is a right angle, and 
the angle BAL an angle of 45°, each having been so taken. The angle BLA is, 
therefore, an angle of 45°, the triangle LBA isosceles, and the side LB equal to the 
side BA. 



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84 GENERAL INFORMATION. 

points or 45^ from the course on which the vessel is steering. Without 
changing her course, the vessel notes at B, when the landmark comes 
exactly abeam^ the distance ran by the vessel from A to B. If there has 
been no current to give a wrong impression of the distance run, or to devi- 
ate the ship from the course steered, the distance LB, of the ship from the 
landmark, when the ship is at B and the landmark bears abeam, is equal to 
the distance AB made by the ship between the two bearings A and B 
respectively. • 

A check on the correctness of the position at B may be had by noting 
the distance run from B when the landmark is 4 points or 46^ on the 
quarter ; that is to say, when the vessel is at C. In this case, again, the 
distance run from B to C gives the distance of the vessel from the land* 
mark when she was at B. This is known by sailors as the "bow-and- 
beam-bearing" method, and is regarded as a great convenience. It is not 
always possible to employ this method, however. 

The following more general graphical construction may be used with 
bearings of a single object when the lines of bearing intersect conven- 
iently. 




In figure 2, a vessel proceeds in the direction A to B without changing 
her course. At both A and 3 she takes a compass bearing of the landmark 
L, and at B notes the distance run on her course from A to B. A parallel 
ruler is set to the course AB by means of the compass rose on the chart, 
and the distance run from A to B is taken from the scale of the chart 
with a pair of dividers. The parallel rulers are then moved to and fro as 
shown by the dotted lines, and the dividers are applied to its edge until 
the parallel line AB is found, on which the intercepted distance AB is 
exactly spanned by the dividers as set by the scale. The line AB then 
represents upon the chart the course of the vessel, A, the point where she 
took her first bearing, and B the point where she took her second bearing. 



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COMPASS POINTS, 



85 



THE COMPASS. 



Pointik 


Number. 


Degrees. 


Number. 


Pointik 


• 






o / // 








North. 











South. 






H 


1 24 22 


% 








H 


2 48 45 


M 








H 


4 18 7 


% 








H 


5 87 ao 


H 








% 


7 1 52 


% 








% 


8 26 15 


% 








% 


9 50 ' 87 


% 




N.byB... 


N.byW-,- 


1 


11 16 


. 1 


S. by W 8. by E. 






% 


12 89 22 


M 








H 


14 8 45 


)i 








H 


15 28 7 


% 








H 


16 52 80 


H 








% 


18 16 62 


% 








% 


19 41 15 


% 








% 


21 5 87 


% 




NNE 


NNW...- 


2 


22 80 


2 


SSW SSE. 






% 


'28 64 22 


% 








K 


25 18 45 


M 


, 






% 


26 43 7 


% 








% 


28 7 80 


H 








% 


29 81 62 


% 








%. 


80 56 15 


% 








Ji 


82 20 87 


Ji 




NE. by N. 


...NW. by N-.-- 


8 


88 45 


8 


SW. by S. SE. by S. 






H 


85 9 22 


H 








h 


86 38 45 


M 








% 


87 58 7 


H 








H 


89 22 30 


H 








% 


40 46 52 


% 








% 


42 11 15 


% 








% 


43 85 37 


% 




NE 


NW—. 


4 


45 


4 


SW SE. 






% 


46 24 22 


% 








K 


47 48 45 


M 








% 


49 18 7 


% 








H 


50 87 80 


H 








% 


52 1 52 


% 








M 


53 26 15 


% 








% 


54 50 87 


Vs 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



86 



COBfPASS POINTS* 
THE COMPASS— (7<wt»'n««<f. 



PoIntB. 


Nomber. 


Degrees. 


Number. 


Points. 


NE. by E. 


...NW. by W— . 


6 

% 
% 
% 


t m 

56 15 
.57 89 22 

59 8 45 

60 28 7 

61 52 80 
68 16 52 
64 41 15 
66 5 87 


5 . 

% 

% 
% 


SW. by W — . 


SE, by B, 


ENE 


WNW.*- 


6 
% 

H 

% 
H 

% 
% 

% 


67 80 

68 54 22 

70 18 45 

71 48 7 
78 7 80 

74 81 52 

75 56 15 
77 20 87 


6 

% 
% 


Wsw 


ESE. 


E.byN-. 


W.byN-... 


7 

H 

% 


78 45 

80 9 22 

81 88 45 

82 58 7 

84 22 80 

85 46 52 


7 
% 


W.byS 


-.E. by 8. 


, 




M 


87 11 15 


H 








"■ 


% 


88 35 87 


% 






East 


West.... 


8 


90 


8 


West , 


Ea&t. 



Digitized by VJiOOQIC 



STATUTC MILES tO SEA MILES. 



8? 



TABLE FOR CONVERTING STATUTE MILES INTO SEA MILES. 

. 1 statute mile = 5^0 feet. 
. 1 sea mile or knot == 6,080 feet. 



Stetote 
■dlMk 




StetQt6 

milM. 


8m 
joUml 


statute 

XnllML 


8m 

JOilM. 


' 1.00 


0.868 


9.00 


7.815 


17.00 


14. 763 


1.25 


1.085 


9.26 


8.082 


17.25 


14.980 


1.60 


1.802 


9.50 


8.249 


17.60 


15. 197 


1.75 


1.519 


9.75 


8.467 


17.75 


15.414 


2.00 


1.786 


10.00 


8.684 


18.00 


15.682 


2.25 


1.958 


10.25 


8.901 


18.25 


15.849 


2.50 


2.171 


10.50 


9.118 


18.50 


16.066 


2.76 


2.887 


10.75 


9.885 


18.75 


16.288 


8.00 


2.604 


11.00 


9.562 


19.00 


16.500 


8.25 


2.821 


11.26 


9.769 


19.25 


16.717 


8.50 


8.088 


11.50 


9.986 


19.60 


16.934 


8.76 


8.256 


11.75 


10.208 


19.75 


17.151 


4.00 


8.478 


12.00 


10.420 


20.00 


17.869 


4.26 


8.690 


12.25 


10.688 


20.25 


17.686 


4.60 


8.907 


12.60 


10.865 


20.50 


17.803 


4.76 


4.124 


12.75 


11.072 


20.75 


18.020 


5.00 


4.841 


18.00 


11.289 


21.00 


18.237 


5.26 


4.559 


18.26 


11.607 


21.25 


18.454 


5.50 


4.776 


18.50 


11.724 


21.50 


18.671 


6.75 


4.994 


18.76 


11.941 


21.75 


18.888 


6.00 


5.211 


14.00 


12.168 


22.00 


19.105 


6.25 


6.428 


14.26 


12.876 


22.26 


19.822 


6.50 


5.646 


14.50 


12.698 


22.50 


19.639 


6.76 


5.862 


14.76 


12.810 


22.76 


19.756 


7.00 


6.079 


15.00 


18.027 


28.00 


19.978 


7.26 


6.296 


16.25 


18.244 


28.25 


20.191 


7.50 


6.518 


15.50 


18.461 


28.50 


20.408 


7.75 


6.780 


15.75 


18.678 


28.76 


20.625 


8.00 


6.947 


16.00 


18.896 


24.00 


20.842 


8.26 


7.164 


16.26 


14.112 


24.25 


21.060 


8.50 


7.881 


16.50 


14.829 


24.50 


21.277 


8.75 


7.698 


16.75 


14.546 


26.00 


21.711 


H 


0.217 


H 


0.484 


X 


0.661 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



88 SEA MILES TO STATUTE MILES. 

TABLE FOR CONVERTING SEA MILES INTO STATUTE MILES. 

1 sea mile or knot = 6,080 feet 
1 statute mile = 5,280 feet. 



flea 

milM. 


Stetate 
milM. 


Sea 
mllM. 


Statute 
milei. 


Sea 
milee. 


Statato 
nUei. 


1.00 


1.151 


8.75 


10.075 


16.50 


18.999 


1.25 


1.489 


9.00 


10. 868 


16.75 


19.287 


1.50 


1.729 


9.25 


10.661 


17.00 


19.575 


1.76 


2.015 


9.50 


10.989 


17.25 


19.868 


2.00 


2.808 


9.76 


11. 227 


17.50 


20.151 


2.25 


2.590 


10.00 


11.515 


17.75 


20.489 


2.50 


2.878 


10.26 


11.808 


18.00 


20.727 


2.75 


8.166 


10.60 


12.090 


18.25 


21.015 


8.00 


8.454 


10.75 


12. 878 


18.60 


21.808 


8.25 


8.742 


11.00 


12. 666 


18.75 


21. 690 


8.50 


4.080 


11.25 


1^.954 


19.00 


21.878 


8.75 


4.818 


11.60 


18.242 


19.26 


22.166 


4.00 


4.606 


11.75 


18.580 


19.60 


22.464 


4.26 


4.893 


12.00 


18.818 


19.75 


22.742 


4.60 


5.181 


12.26 


14.106 


20.00 


28.080 


4.75 


5.469 


12.60 


14.898 


20.25 


28.818 


5.00 


5.757 


12.75 


14.681 


20.60 


28.606 


5.25 


6.046 


13.00 


14.969 


20.76 


28.893 


5.50 


6.888 


18.25 


16.257 


21.00 


24.181 


5.75 


6.621 


18.60 


15.545 


21.25 


24.468 


6.00 


6.909 


18.76 


15.888 


21.50 


24.767 


6.25 


7.196 


14.00 


16. 121 


21.75 


25.045 


6.50 


7.484 


14.26 


16.409 


22.00 


25.888 


6.75 


7.772 


14.60 


16. 696 


22. 25 


25.621 


7.00 


8.060 


14.75 


16. 984 


22.50 


26.909 


7.25 


8.848 


16.00 


17. 272 


22.75 


26.196 


7.60 


8.686 


15.25 


17.560 


28.00 


26.484 


7.75 


8.924 


16.50 


17.848 


23.50 


27.000 


8.00 


9.212 


15.75 


18. 186 


24.00 


27. 686 


8.25 


9.500 


16.00 


18.424 


24.. 50 


28.212 


8.50 


9.787 


16.25 


18. 712 


25.00 


28.787 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



DIFFERENCE IN DRAFT. 
DRAFT IN SALT AND FRESH WATER. 



89 



With r^ard to the amount a vessel will rise in passing from fresh to 
salt water, the following table shows approximately : 



Moulded depth in feet. 


Approximate amount of rise of a Tossel paaring 
from freeh to sea water. 


Yeasels without 
erections on 
deck. 


Awning deck 
TeeselB. 


Spar deck tcb- 
sels. 


9 and under 11 

11 and under 18 

18 and under 10.-.. 

16 and under 19. 

19 and under 22 

22 and under 25 

25 and under 28 

28 and under 81 

31 and under 34 


Inches. 
2 

8 

^H 

4 
5 




Inches. 


Inches* 






4 

5 

6 

6K 


4 
5 


7 



The weight of a cubic foot of salt water being taken to be 64 pounds; 
that of fresh water 62.6 pounds. 

This table applies^ as a general rule^ for all except those of extremely 
full or extremely fine form. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Adams point 19 

shoal near 15, 19 

Alabaster 25 

Albany island 4 

Albert port - 30 

Alcona 24 

Alpena 22 



directions 23 

display station 22 

fog signal - 22 

improvements - 22 

■ — light 22 

signal station 22 

to Detour passage 28 

to Georgian bay 28 

toPresquelle 28 

to Saginaw river 28 

to Sand Beach 28 

to St. Clair river 28 

Amherstburg 48 

r^nge . 49 

Anchor Bay 51 

Anchoring in deep water 07 

Au Sable 24 

light 24 

point- 24 

— river 24 

= improvements 24 

Aux Barques point 29 

light 29 

Aux Canards River 48 

buoy 48 

AuxGres point 20 

river 20 

B. 

Baby Creek 41 

Babys point __ 42 

Bad Neighbor rock _ 18 

buoy 18 

Ballard Reef lightboat 48 

fog signal-- 48 

Bar Point lightvessel 50 

fog signal 50 

Barnetsville -— _ 31 



Page. 

Bassett channel 48 

Bay City J 27 

directions 28 

display station 28 

Bayfield 87 

river ,^ 87 

Bayport 26 

Bear Creek 42 

Beaver Tail point ._., • 8 

Belleisle 46 

(east end) buoy 46 

(west end) buoy 46 

light 46 

river -.„ 42 

Biddle point 18 

Bird island 22 

Black river (Lake Huron) 24 

display station .. 24 

island 24 

life-saving station 24 

light 24 

shoals 16,24 

(St. Clair river) 40 

shoal 40 

Bois Blanc island.,.. ™..-. 11 

coast of -. 12 

life-saving station _ 12 

'. light 12 

: — : — shoal off of 12 

Bois Blanc lights 49,50 

Boot island , 4 

Bruise point 4 

Burchville 81 

Burnt Cabin point.. ^ 29 

C. 

Canadian storm signals 60 

CapeHurd 84 

channel (Georgian bay), 84 

Ipperwash 37 

Carlton bay 8 

Carp River 5 

Caseville 26 

Chantry island: _ 35 

- — '■ fog signal 35 



(91) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



92 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Chantry island light 85 

Charity island 26 

buoy 26 

— light 26 

shoals off of 16, 26 

Little 26 

Charts, use of ^S 

Cheboygan 7 

directions .— 8 

fog signal 7 

improvements 7 

lights 7 

range lights 7 

river 7 

shoal _ 7 

shoal buoy 7 

— ' to Detour passage 8 

to Lake Michigan 8 

toPresquelle 8 

Chenal Aboutrond _- 51 

ChenalEcart^ 42 

Chiefs point 35 

Clarke point _ __. 36 

—7 light _ 36 

Clinton River __ 51 

Cockburn island 38 

— point 33 

Collier port... 33 

Compass points 85 

Corsica shoal --_-_ _ _> 82 

Corunna range lights 40 

village _ 41 

Cove island __. 34 

■- —fog signal 34 

light- 34 

Cranes point ._ 30 

Crescent port 29 

Crooked island.^... __. 21 

Currents, Lake Huron 69 

Straits of Mackinac 5, 13 

D. 

Dangers Black River island to Point 

au Sable 16 

Cape Hurd to Chantry 

island 18 

Detour point to Georgian 

Bay entrance 17 

Pointe aux Barques to 

Pointe aux Barques 

lighthouse 16 

Pointe aux Barques light- 
house to Fort Gratiot — . 17 



Page. 

Dangers Point Clarke to Cape Ipper- 

wash 18 

Point Harris to St. Clair 

river 18 

Saginaw bay 16 

Straits of Mackinac to 

Thunder bay 15 

Tawas bay 16 

Thunder bay 15 

Detour passage 3 

point _.- 8 

fog signal 8 

light 8 

reef 17 

buoy 17 

point to Alpena 2 

Cheboygan 1 

Goderich 2 

Kincardine 2 

Main channel, Geor- 
gian bay 2 

Presquelle .— 2 

Saginaw river 8 

St. Clair river 2 

Southampton 2 

: Tawas __ 3 

Waugoshance light 7 

Detroit ._ _ 46 

river 39 

buoy •- 45 

— ; ' — r-directions 1 45 

northern channel 46 

Devil island w_ __. 34 

channel, Georgian bay. 34 

river 22 

Distress signals _ « 60 

Dougallsrock 48 

buoy _ _- 48 

Douglas point ..*-. 36 

Draft, salt and fresh water 89 

Duck islands 38 

dangers 17 

island. Great 88 

fog signal 84 

light 34 

Inner 83 

Middle 33 

Outer 88 

Duncan bay _ 7 

Drummond island 88 

B. 

EastMoran bay 5 

Edward point 1 87 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



93 



Page. 

Edward point range lights 87 

Elgin port — 36 

light - 80 

Elm creek 81 

spit 17,81 

Erroll .. 87 

P 

Fairhaven 61 

False Detour channel - 83 

Presque He harbor - 20 

danger8-_15, 20 

directions _ 20 

Fawn island - 41 

Fighting island 46 

Fish dock.,.. 42 

Fitzwilliam channel 34 

shoal in 17 

island 17 

. Flat Rock point 29 

Fools bay 81 

Forest bay 80 

Forester—^ _ 81 

Fdrestville 81 

Fort Gratiot 82 

• fog signal 82 

light 82 

range lights 40 

shoalSE. of 40 

buoy 40 

Fort Maiden 89 

Forty Mile point _ 18 

life-saving station.- 18 

Freedom village ..: 8 

French river 14 

Fuyards point 4 

O. 

Gales, riding out in deep water 67 

General information » 77 

charts 77 

distor- 

t ion 

of... 79 

use of— 78 

fog signals.-- 80 

light lists .... 77 

notices to mar- 
iners 78 

sailing direc- 

tions 77 

vessel's posi- 
tion 80 

Georgian bay 84 

10988 ^7 



Pftge. 

Georgian^ bay channels 84 

Ghegheto islands 85 

Gigpoint... 84 

fogsignal 34 

light : 84 

Goderich 36 

directions — 37 

dues 87 

fogsignal 87 

harbor of refuge 87 

improvements 87 

lights 87 

signal station -* 37 

Goose island 4 

reef near 4 

Graham shoals 6 

buoys __ ^ 5 

current 6 

Grand Manitoulin island 33 

lights— -83,34 

reefs near. 17 

Grass island _ 22 

shoals off of 16,22 

Grassy island 47 

light 47 

point __ 47 

Gravelly point 26 

spit 16,26 

buoy _ 26 

Grays reef fogsignal 10 

lightvessel 10 

Green island 33 

Greenbush _ 24 

Greenough point.. 34 

Grindstone City 29 

Gros cap 6 

Gross point - 6 

Grosse ile St. Martin 5 

isle range lights _ 47 

Grosse pointe, beacon light .-1 45 

buoy 46 

channel 39 

flats 89 

fog signal 45 

lighthouse 45 

Gull island 21 

a 

Hammond bay 18 

Hard Wood point— 22 

Harlem shoal 32 

Harris point 87 

Harrisville 24 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



84 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Herson island 43 

range lights, lower. 43 

upper. 43 

Hessel village - 4 

Hope port ,— — 30 

Hungerford point 34 

Hurd cape 34 

Huron City 29 

Lake.... 14 

Canadian shore 33 

currents 69 

dangers (Canadian 

shore) 17 

(U. ashore).-. 15 

dimensions ». 14 

east shore 84 

harbors of refuge 14 

— lightvessel 32 

fog signal . . 82 

■> navigation — . 14 

northeast shore 82 

^ routes... 1,32 

. tributaries 14 

westshore 18 

Huron, port 40 

Hurricane signals 64 

Hydrographic OflBce agents 107 

publications.- 101 

I. 

He La Salle 4 

— Marquette 4 

— St. Martin 5 

Indian creek 31 

Inverhuron 36 

Ipperwash cape 37 

Isle aux P^ches 45 

buoy 46 

Isleof Coves light ^ 34 

fog signal 34 

J. 

Johnston channel 42 

K. 

Kincardine 86 

range lights 36 

L. 

La Barbe point 6 

Lake Huron _ 14 

dangers, Canadian 17 

' United States 15 

eastshore 34 

harbors of refuge 14 



Page. 

Lake Huron lightvessel 82 

fog signal . . 82 

; navigation 14 

west shore 18 

Lakeport 31 

Lake St. Clair 51 

Lake View 87 

Lexington -._ 31 

Life-saving service 72 

stations 72 

directions 74,76 

Light, Alpena _ 22 

Amherstburg 49 

Au Sable point 24 

Aux Barques point 29 

Ballard reef 48 

Belle isle 46 

Black river 24 

' Bois Blanc ---. 12 

Bois Blanc island 49 

Chantry island 35 

Charity island ._ 26 

Cheboygan 1 7 

Clarke point 36 

Corunnarange 40 

Cove island 34 

Detourpoint 8 

Duck island. Great 34 

Edward point, range 87 

Elgin port 86 

Fort Gratiot 82 

range 40 

Gigpoint 84 

Goderich !.. 37 

Grassy island.. 47 

Grays reef 10 

Grosse isle, range - 47 

Grosse pointe 1 45 

Herson island, range .. 48 

Kincardine, range 86 

r- Lake Huron 32 

LakeSt. Clair 51 

Limekiln range - 48 

Lower Reach, ranges 44 

— Lyal island 35 

Mackinac point, old 8 

Mackinac town 13 

Mamajuda 47 

'■ McGulpin point 9 

Michaelpoint ., 34 

r- Mississagua strait-, 33 

Old Point Mackinac 8 

-Poereef... 11 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



95 



Page. 

Light, Point Edward, range • 37 

Pointe aux Barques 29 

Port Austin _. 29 

Elgin _ 86 

^Sanilac _. 81 

Presque He 19 

peninsula 19 

Russell island, ranges 42 

St. Clair flats, range 82 

St. Helena island 6 

Saginaw bay 26 

river, range 27 

Sanilac port _. 31 

Sand Beach harbor 30 

Southeast Bend, range 43 

Southampton harbor 86 

range . . 36 

Spectacle reef _ 11 

Stokes bay 35 

Straits of Mississagua 33 

Sturgeon point 24 

Tawas point 25 

Thames river 51 

Thunder Bay island 21 

river 22 

Waugoshance 9 

White shoal 10 

Windmill point 46 

range. 45 

Limekiln, range lights 48 

Little Charity island 26 

Lower Reach, range lights, lower. _ 44 

upper _ _ 44 

Lucas channel, Georgian bay 34 

Lyal island 35 

light 85 

M. 

MacGregor channel, Georgian bay. 84 

Mackinac City 8 

fort 18 

harbor.. 18 

anchorage 13 

buoy 18 

current 18 

island 18 

point, old 8 

fog signal 8 

light 8 

Straits 1 

~ — ^town. 18 

directions 18 

~ pilots 18 



Page. 

Mackinac town,tugs 13 

wharfage 18 

Magnetic reefs 17, 83 

Main channel, Georgian bay 34 

shoals in 17 

Maitland river _ 36 

Major shoal.' 13 

buoy 13 

Mamajuda lights 47 

shoal-... 47 

Manitoulin island 33 

Marquette- bay 4 

island-. ..^_._i 4 

Marine City ." 41 

Martin reef 4 

buoy 4 

Mason creek 25 

shoals off of 16,26 

McLeod bay 7 

McGulpin point 9 

light 9 

Michael bay 84 

point-- 84 

— reef off of^....- 17 

fog signal 84 

light- 34 

Middle island 20 

^ anchorage 20 

buoy 20 

dangers near .. 16 

directions 20 

display station 20 

life-saving station ... 20 

shoals _. 20 

Milk river point 61 

Mission point — — 13 

Mississagua strait _. 35 

fog signal 88 

light 83 

•■ shoals In 88 

Mltchel bay 61 

point 1 61 

Moran bay, east w— _ 6 

west.- 

Mooretown — 41 

Muskeka^river 14 

' " " N. " 

Navlgatlon-of 4h6 lakes . — -. 14 

New-Baltimore.... u 61 

New river a 29 

New York bowlders 49- 

buoy-.-- - 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



96 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Nine Mile river 86 

North point 21 

Graham shoal 5 

buoy 6 

Northwest shoal 82 

Nottawasaga 14 

O. 

Oak point— 28 

OW Point Mackinac - 8 

fog signal 8 

light 8 

Oqueoc river ^— 18 

Orion rock 17,29 

Ottawa point 25 

Owen channel, Georgian bay 34 

shoals in 17 

P. 

Partridge point 22 

shoal off of _— 15,22 

river 29 

Picnic point _— . 81 

Pigeon river . 26 

Pinconning river 26 

Pine river 5,26,41 

Poe reef 11 

: — - fog signal __ 11 

-lightvessel 11 

Point, 866 proper name 

au Sable „ 8,24 

aux Ch§nes 6 

aux Gres 26 

Edward 87 

range lights 87 

la Barbe 6 

Pointe aux Barques 29 

buoy 29 

display station . 29 

•> life-saving sta- 
tion - 29 

-light 29 

Pontiac shoal 50 

^ —buoy 50 

to Pointe aux Barques light, 

dangers « 16 

Port Albert 86 

Austin • 29 

fog signal 29 

light : 29 

reef 29 

Collier 88 

Crescent ... 20 



Page. 

Port Elgin 36 

light 36 

Hope .-_ 80 

Huron -_ ._ 40 

Sanilac 31 

light 31 

Sarnia 40 

Portage bay _ 34 

Presque He harbor ._- 19 

directions 19 

fog signal 19 

light 19 

range lights 19 

shoals — 19 

False 20 

: peninsula — . 19 

light 19 

Providence bay 34 

R. 

Rabbits Back peak 5 

Raynolds reef — 11 

buoy — - 11 

Refuge, harbors of — 1 

Richmondville 31 

Riding out gales in deep water 67 

Rifle river _. 26 

Rogers City _ 18 

directions 19 

display station 18 

Rond island 21 

Rose shoal — ^ 10 

Roundisland — 12 

shoal 12 

buoy — 12 

Rules for use of oil - 61 

of the Road 52 

Russell island. _ 18,42 

buoy 42 

' range lights, low«r .. 42 

upper. _ 42 

8. 

St. Clair Flats canal 38 

lights • 44 

lake , 44,51 

directions 44 

; — middle ground 41 

buoys 41 

St. Clair river 32,88 

caution —.40,41 

directions 40 

■ northern approach . . - 89 
proposed channel 88 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



97 



Page. 

St. Clair river shoal , 40 

■ — buoy 41 

south channel 42 

U. S. Ship Canal 44 

to Detour passage . . . 32 

Georgian bay 82 

Lake Michigan 32 

St. Helena island 6 

caution __ 6 

light 6 

shoal 

buoy 6 

harbor 6 

shoal _ 6 

buoy _ 6 

St. Ignace 5 

point 5 

St. Martin bay _ 5 

island : 5 

pointl _._ 5 

St. Martin lie i 5 

St. Vital point _ 3 

Sabewaing _ 26 

river _.. 26 

Sable river __ _ 24 

Saddlebag island 4 

Saginaw bay _ 26 

buoy _ -, 26 

dangers 16 

directions 27 

east shore 26 

light ._ 26 

shoal _ 27 

west shore 26 

Saginaw City,east 27 

west _- 27 

river 27 

buoys 27 

directions 28 

display station _ . 28 

improvements 27 

range lights 27 

to Detour passage..- 28 

Georgian bay 28 

St. Clair river 28 

Sand Beach 28 

Sanilac port 81 

light 31 

Sand Beach 80 

harbor 30 

anchorage _ 30 

directions _._ 80 

display station. . 80 



Page. 
Sand Beach directions, east entrance 81 

fog signal . .' 31 

improvements- _ 80 

life-saving sta- 
tion — 80 

lights 30,31 

— ' north entrance. _ 30 

Sand point 26 

Sarniaport 40 

Saugeen light - -. 35 

peninsula 84 

river 35 

Scammon harbor. 4 

Scare Crow: island _ 22 

Scotr middle ground 46 

buoys 46 

Search bay - 4 

Seiches 70 

Severn river _ — . 14 

Shiawassee river 27 

Signals: Canadian - 60 

distress 60 

hurricane 59 

information 59 

storm 59 

United States 59 

South point — 22 

Southeast bend, lower light 44 

middle light 4 

upper light 48 

South Graham shoal — 5 

buoy 5 

Southampton — 85 

harbor 85 

directions 86 

improvements . 86 

light 86 

i" range lights... 86 

Spectacle reef 11 

fog signal 11 

light 11 

Spring Mills 24 

Squirrel island 48 

buoy 48 

shoal 43 

buoy 48 

Stag island _ _ 41 

caution 41 

• shoals 41 

; buoys 41 

Stokes bay _ 84 

light - 85 

Storm signals : Canadian 60 

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98 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Storm signals : United States .- 59 

Strait of Mississagua 33 

; fog signal 33 

: light.- 33 

shoals 83 

Straits of Mackinac _ 1 

currents —5,13 

dangers in 1 

directions 1 

islands in 11 

life-saving sta- 
tion 12 

north shore 3 

routes _ 1 

; shoals in 11 

south channel. _ 11 

shore ._- 6 

to Thunder bay, 

dangers -.-•_— 15 

Strong island _ 4 

Sturgeon point 24 

life-saving station 24 

light 24 

Sugar island 21 

Sulphur island 22 

shoals near 15,22 

Surveyors reef ._ 4 

Swan river 19 

T. 

Tables; sea to statute miles 88 

statute to sea miles 87 

Talfords creek _ 41 

Tawas 25 

East 25 

bay __. 25 

buoys 25 

directions _« 25 

display station 25 

life-saving station 25 

point 25 

buoys 25 

light_. 25 

spit off 16,25 

Tittabawassee river 27 

Thames river 51 

lights 51 

Thomas bay _ _. 34 

Thunder bay. .„ 21 

anchorages 21 

buoy 21 

dangers 15 

directions _ 23 



Pttge. 

Thunder bay wreck 21 

^island- 21 

display station 21 

fog signal 21 

life-saving sta- 
tion 21 

light 21 

river 22 

directions 23 

improvements— 22 

light 22 

Tobin reef 4 

Troutriver _ 18 

U. 

United States signals 59 

V. 

Vessel's position 80 

Vienna shoal _ 10 

buoy ' 10 

W. 

Walker point : 34 

Waugoshance island 9 

point 9 

16-foot shoal - 10 

buoy... 10 

shoals .- 9, 

caution 9 

fog signal 9 

light 9 

Weather signals: Canadian 60 

United States 59 

West Mor an bay, shoals in 6 

Whiterock 31 

point i 31 

town 31 

shoal buoy 10 

fog signal 10 

lightvessel 10 

Whitestone point _ 26 

shoal off of 26 

Willowriver 29 

: — wharf 17,29 

Windmill point 45 

light 45 

range lights _. 45 

Woodtick island 41 

shoals 41 

buoys 41 

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INDEX. 



99 



Yeo channel, Georgian bajr . 
Yeo Island 



Page. 
. 34 
. 17 



Z. 

Page. 

Zela point 12 

shoal 12 

buoy — - 12 



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NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 

General Examination of the Atlantic Ocean. By Capt. Charles Phil- 
ippe De Kerhallet. Translated by Capt. R. H. Wyman, U. S. N. 

8vo. 1870. Hydrographic Office 

Supplement No. 1. 1886. Hydrographic Office _: 

General Directions for the Atlantic Ocean. From the French of P. 
Labrosse. Second edition. Translated by Lieut. Commander J. B. 

Coghlan, U. S. N. 8vo. 1878. Hydrographic Office- 

Nova Scotia, Bay of Fundy, and South Shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence 
to Miran^ichi Bay. Compiled by R. H. Orr. 8vo. 1891. Hydro- 
graphic Office __ 

Supplement. 1894. Hydrographic Office _ __ 

Gulf and River St. Lawrence and Cape Breton Island, including Cape 
Breton, Magdalen, and Anticosti Islands. Compiled by R. H. Orr. 

8vo. 1891. Hydrographic Office.. _ 

Supplement. 1894. Hydrographic Office _. 

The Depths that Can be Carried into the Harbors and Anchorages on the 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Prepared by Gustave 

Herrle. (Pamphlet.) 1898. Hydrographic Office. 

The Navigation of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Vol. I. 
The West India Islands, including the Bahama Banks and Islands, 
and the Bermuda Islands. Third edition. Compiled by R. C. Ray, 

U.S.N. 8vo. 1892. Hydrographic Office 

Supplement. 1894. Hydrographic Office 

The Navigation of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Vol. II. 
Coasts from the Rio Grande del Norte to Cape Orange, with Adjacent 
Islands and Dangers. Second edition. • Revised by K. C. Ray, U. S. N. 

8vo. 1890. Hydrographic Office. 

Supplement. Third edition. 1894. Hydrograpic Office.. ._.. 
Supplement No. 2. Gulf Coast of the United States. Compiled by 
Lieut. W.S.Hughes, U.S.N. 8vo. 1891. Hydrographic Office... 

Supplement No. 3. 1895. Hydrographic Office 

Newfoundland and Labrador. Compiled by Lieut. W. W. Gilpatrick 
and Ensign John Gibson, JJ. S. N. 8vo. 1884. Hydrographic 

Office 

Newfoundland and Labrador. Supplement. 8vo. 1886. Compiled 
by Lieut. R. G. Davenport and Ensign John Gibson, U. S. N. Hydro- 
graphic Office _ 

Supplement No. 2. 1891 . Hydrographic Office _. 

Supplement No. 3. 1895. Hydrographic Office 

Sailing Directions for the Kattegat Sound, and the Great and Little 
Belts to the Baltic Sea. Compiled by Commander William Gibson, 

U.S.N. 8vo. 1881. Hydrographic Office _ 

Supplement No. 1. 1886. Hydrographic Office.. _. 

Sailing Directions for the English Channel. Part I. South Coast of 

England, 8vo. 1872. Hydrographic Office 

Supplement. Third edition. 1893. Hydrographic Office 

Sailing Directions for the English Channel. Part II. Compiled by 
Master Asher C. Baker, U. S. N. 8vo. 1877. Hydrographic Office. 

Supplement. Third edition. 1893. Hydrographic Office 

Coasts and Ports of the Bay of Biscay. Translated and compiled by 
Lieuts. G. M. Totten and Seaton Schroeder, U. S. N. 8vo. 1876. 

Hydrographic Office _ _ _ 

Supplement. Third edition. 1892. Hydrographic Office 

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NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN— Continued. 

Winds, Currents, and Naviffation of the Gulf of Cadiz, the Western 
Coast of the Spanish Peninsula, and the Strait of Gibraltar, by Capt. 
R. H. Wyman, U. S. N. 8vo. 1870. Hydrographic OflSce 

Northwest, West, and South Coasts of Spain, and the Coast of Portu- 
gal from Point Estaca to Cape Trafalgar. Translated and compiled 
by Lieut. George M. Totten, U. 8. N. 8vo. 1874. Hydrographic 

OflBce _ _ 

Supplement. Second edition. 1890. Hydrographic OflBce 

General Examination of the Mediterranean Sea. By Capt. A. Le Gras, 
I. F. N. Translated by Capt. R. H. Wyman, U. S. N. 8vo. 1870. 
Hydrographic Office _ 

Mediterranean. Part I. S. and SE. Coast of Spain from Mala Bahia 
to Cape Creux. Balearic Islands and N. Coast of Africa from Ceuta 
to La Cala. Translated and compiled by Lieut. Commander H. H. 

Gorringe, U. S. N. 8vo. 1875. Hydrographic OflBce 

Supplement. Fourth edition. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce 

Mediterranean. Part II. South Coast of France; West Coast of 
Italy; Tuscan Archipelago; Corsica and Sardinia. By Lieut. Com- 
mander H. H. Gorringe, IT. S. N., assisted by Lieut. Seaton Schroe- 

der, U. S. N. 8vo. 1878. Hydrographic OflSce _._ 

Supplement. Third edition. 1892. Hydrographic OflBce 

Mediterranean. Part III. Coastof Tunis; Sardinia; Sicily and Malta 
Channels; Lipari Islands; Sicily; Strait of Messina; Coast of 
Tripoli; Coast of Egypt; Syria. By Lieut. Commander H. H. Gor- 
ringe, U. 8. N., assisted by Lieut. Seaton Schroeder, U. S. N. 8vo. 

1879. Hydrographic OflBce *_ _ 

Supplement. Third edition. 1892. Hydrographic OflBce 

Mediterranean. Part IV. Gulf of Gioja to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca; 
South Coast of Italy; the Adriatic Sea; Ionian Islands; the Coasts of 
Albania and Greece to Cape Malea, with Corigo Island, including 
the Gulfs of Patras and Corinth. Compiled by Lieut. John M. 

Hawley, U. S. N. 8vo. 1883. Hydrographic OflBce _ 

Supplement. Third edition. 1892. Hydrographic OflBce 

The Azores, Madeiras, Canaries, and Cape Verde Islands. Second 
edition. Revised by R. C. Ray. 8vo. 1892. Hydrographic OflBce. 

West Coast of Africa. From Cape Spartel to Cape Agulhas, including 
the Islands in Bight of Biafra, Ascension, St. Helena, Tristan da 
Cunha, and Gough Islands. Second edition. Compiled by R. C. 
Ray, U.S. N. 8vo. 1893. Hydrographic OflBce 

Memoir and the Dangers and Ice in the North Atlantic. (Pamphlet.) 
1868. Bureau of Navigation __ - 

Ice and Ice Movements in North Atlantic Ocean. By Ensign Hugh 
Rodman, U. S. N. (Pamphlet.) 1890. Hydrographic OflSce 

SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 

East Coast of South America. From the Orinoco River to Cape Vir- 
gins, including Falkland, South Georgia, Sandwich, and South Shet- i 
land Islands. Second edition. Compiled by R. C. Ray, U. S. N. i 
8vo. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce _.- -- , 1.50 

The Rio de la Plata. Translated and compiled by Lieut. Commander 

H. H. Gorringe, U. S. N. 8vo. 1875. Hydrographic OflBce _ . . | (*) 

Supplement No. 1. 1886. Hydrographic OflBce | (*) 

Navigation of the Strait of Magellan. Traniilated from the French by 
Commodore J. C. P. de Kraft and Commander William Gibson, U. ! 
S.N. (Pamphlet.) 1883. Hydrographic OflBce 20 

Remarks by Capt. M. A. Left^vre, of the French Navy, on the voyage 
of the Vaudreuil through Patagonian Channels and Magellan Strait. 
Translated by Lieut. George M. Totten, U. S. N. (Pamphlet.) 1874. 

Hydrographic OflBce 20 

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41 

415 

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108 

108 
Part I. 

108 
Part II. 



PACIFIC OCEAN. 

General Examination of the Pacific Ocean. By Capt. Charles Phil- 
ippe De Kerhallet, French Imperial Navy. Translated under the 
direction of Commodore Charles Henry DaviSyU. S. N. 8vo. 1867. 

Supplement No. 1. 1886. Hydrographic OflBce _ 

The Navigation of the Pacific Ocean. Translated from the French 
of Mon8.F.Labrosse, by Lieut. J. W.Miller, U.S.N. 8vo. 1874. 

Hydrographic OflBce. Republished 1893 

The West Coast of South America, including Magellan Strait, 
"Tierra del Fuego, and the Outlying Islands. Compiled by R. C. 

Ray, U.S.N. 8vo. 1890. Hydrographic OflBce 

Supplement. Third edition. 1893. Hydrographic OflBce. 
West Coast of Mexico and Central America, from me United 
States to Panama, including the Gulfs of California and Pan- 
ama. Second edition. Compiled by R. C. Ray, U. 8. N. 8vo. 

1893. Hydrographic OflBce _ 

The Coast of British Columbia. From Juan de Fuca Strait to 
Portland Canal, including Vancouver and Queen Charlotte 
Islands. Compiled by R. C. Ray, U. S. N. 8vo. 1891. Hydro- 
graphic OflBce. __ ___ _. 

Supplement. Second edition. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce. 
List of Reported Dangers in the North Pacific Ocean. 8vo. 1871. 

Hydrographic OflBce ___ --^_- __ 

Supplement No. 2. 1891. Hydrographic OflBce __^ 

Supplement to Reported Dangers in the North Pacific Ocean. 
Compiled and arranged by Commander William Gibson, U. S. N. 

8vo. 1880. Hydrographic OflBce _ 

List of Reported Dangers in the South Pacific Ocean. Compiled 
and arranged by Lieut. J. E. Pillsbury, TJ. S. N. 8vo. 1879. 

Hydrographic OflBce 

Supplement. 1891. Hydrographic OflBce _. 

Ice and Ice Movements in Bering Sea and the Arctic Basin. By 
Ensign E. Simpson, U. S. N. (Pamphlet.) 1890. Hydrographic 
OflBce. _- 

INDIAN OCEAN. 

Sailing Directions of the Indian Ocean, the Winds, Monsoons, 
Currents, and Passages, including also the Java Sea, Sulu Sea, 
Arafura Sea, and the Philippine Islands. Compiled by Lieut. 

F. E. Sawyer, U. S. N. 8vo. 1887. Hydrographic OflBce 

Revised Supplement. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce 

General Examination of Indian Ocean, with Directions for the 
Navigation of Torres Straits, etc. By Capt. Charles Philippe 
De Kerhallet, I. F. N. Translated by Capt. R. H. Wyman, 
U.S.N. 8vo. 1870. Hydrographic OflBce 

Physical Geography of the Red Sea, with Sailing Directions. By 
Capt.W^Krop,LA.N. Translated by E. R. Knorr. 8vo. 1872. 
Hydrographic OflBce 

LAKES. 

Sailing Directions for the Lakes. (To be published in parts as 
follows) : 

Sailing Directions for Lake Superior, St. Marys River, and Straits 
of Mackinac. Prepared by Lieut. D. H. Mahan, U. S. N., assisted 
by R. C. Ray, U. S. N. 8vo. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce 

Sailing Directions for Lake Michigan, Green Bay, and Straits of 
Mackinac. Prepared by Lieut. D. H. Mahan, U. S. N., assisted 
byEnsignJ.H.Reid,U.8.N. 8vo. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce. . 

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108 
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108 
Part IV. 

108 
Part IV. 
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30 

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33 
32 

31 



72' 

9 

18 

17 
71 

106 

68 

57 
49 
90 



LAKES.— .Continued. 

Sailing^Directions for Lake Huron, Straits of Mackinac, St. Clair, 
and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair. Prepared by Lieut. D. H. 
Mahan, U. S. N., assisted by R. C. Ray, U. S. N. 8vo. 1895. 
Hydrographic OflBce ___ _ 

Sailing Directions for North Channel of Lake Huron and Geor- 
gian Bay. Prepared by Lieut. D. H. Mahan, U. 8. N., assisted 
by R. C. Ray, U. S. N. 8vo. 1695. Hydrographic OflBce. (In 
press,) _ 

Sailing Directions for Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. (In prepar- 
ation,) 



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LIGHT LISTS. 

List of Lights (No. 1) of North and South America (excepting the 
United States), including the West Indies and Pacific Islands. 
Compiled by Boynton Leach. 4to. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce 

List of Lights (No. 5) of the North, Baltic, and White Seas, 
including the Coasts of Denmark, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, and 
Norway. Compiled by Boynton Leach. 8vo. Hydrographic 
OflBce __ — 

List of Lights (No. 4) of the West Coast of Europe, from Gibraltar 
to the White Sea. 4to. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce. (In prep- 
aration) ___ _ -_. 

List of Lights (No. 3) of the West Coast of Africa and the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, including the West and North Coasts of Africa, the 
Mediterranean, the Adriatic, the Black Seas, and the Sea of Azof. 
Compiled by Boynton Leach. 4to. 1893. Hydrographic OflSce.. 
Supplement. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce __. 

List of Lights (No. 2) of South and East Coasts of Africa and the 
East Indies, including the East India Islands, China, Japan, 
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Compiled by Boynton 
Leach. 4vo. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce 

NAVIGATION BOOKS. 

List of Geographical Positions. By Lieut. Commander F. M. 

Green, U. S. N. 4to. 1883. Bureau of Navigation 

The New American Practical Navigator. By Nathaniel Bow- 
ditch, LL.D, 8vo. Edition of 1894. Bureau of Navigation 

Bowditch's Useful Tables. 8vo. Edition of 1894. Bureau of 

Navigation _ _ 

Projection Tables. 8vo. 1869. Bureau of Navigation 

Azimuth Tables for parallels of latitude between 61° N. 61° S. 

By Lieut. Seaton Schroeder and Master W. H. H. Southerland, 

U.S.N. 4to. Edition of 1893. Hydrographic OflBce 

Azimuth Tables for parallels of latitude between 40° N and 50° 

N. For the Great Lakes. 4to. 1894. Hydrographic OflBce. _. 
Supplement to 106. Equation of Time for the years 1894, 

1895, 1896, and 1897 

Arctic Azimuth Tables for parallels of latitude between 70° and 

88°. Prepared by Lieuts. Seaton Schroeder and Richard Wain- 

wright, U. S. N. 12mo. 1881. Hydrographic OflBce -^.- 

Tables for Finding the Distance of an Object by Two Bearings. 

(Pamphlet.) 1874. Hydrographic OflBce 

The Route of Mail Steamers between the English Channel and 

New York. (Pamphlet.) 1873. Hydrographic OflBce 

The Development of Great Circle Sailing. By G. W. Littlehales. 

8vo. 1889. Hydrographic OflBce 



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4 

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110 
65 



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65& 



76 



97 



NAVIGATION BOOKS— Continued. 

Table of Meridianal Parts for the Terrestrial Spheroid, Compression 
Tshvz- By G. W. Littlehales and J. S. Siebert. 8vo. 1889. Hydro- 
graphic OflSce __ _ 

Contributions to Terrestrial Magnetism — The Variation of the Com- 
pass. Compiled by Lieut. Chauncey Thomas, U. S. N. 8vo. 1894. 
Hydrographic OflBce .._ _ --. 



METEOROLOGICAL. 

The Way to Avoid the Center of Our Violent Gales. 8vo. 1868. 

Bureau of Navigation _ 

Practical Hints in regard to West India Hurricanes. By Lieut. G. L. 

Dyer, U. S. N. 1887. (Pamphlet.) Hydrographic Office .-. 

Nautical Monograph No. 5. The Great Storm off the Atlantic Coast 

of the United States, March 11-14, 1888. By Everett Hayden, U. S. N. 

1888. Hydrographic Office - 

SURVEYS. 

Memoranda for Running Surveys. By E. R. Knorr. (Pamphlet.) 
1872. Bureau of Navigation _ _ 

General Instructions for Hydrographic Surveyors. (Pamphlet.) 1868. 
Bureau of Navigation 

The Methods and Results of the Survey of the West Coast of Lower 
California by the Officers of the U. S. S. Banger during the season 
of 1889 and 1890. By Lieut. O. W. Lowry, U. S. N., and G. W. 
Littlehales. 8vo. 1892. Hydrographic Office 

SIGNALS. 

International Signal Code. Revised and corrected to 1894, including 
the semaphore and storm signal service of the maritime countries, 
the life-saving service and time ball system of the United States 
8vo. 1894. Bureau of Navigation _ 



MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS. 

The Gulf Stream. By Lieut. Commander John E. Pillsbury, U. S. N. 

(Pamphlet.) 1894. Hydrographic Office 

Report on the Telegraphic Determination of Differences of Longitude 

in the West Indies and Central America. By Lieut. Commander 

F. M. Green, U. S. N. 4to. 1877. Bureau of Navigation 

Report on the Telegraphic Determination of Differences of Longitude 

on the East Coast ^f South America. By Lieut. Commander F. M. 

Green, U. S. N. 4to. 1880. Bureau of Navigation _ 

Report on the Telegraphic Determination of Longitude in the East 

Indies, China, and Japan. By Lieut. Commander F. M. Green, U. 

S. N. 4to. 1881-'82. Bureau of Navigation 

Report of Telegraphic Determinations of Longitudes in Mexico, 

Central America, and West Coast of South America. By Lieut. 

Commander C. H. Davis, Lieuts. J. A. Norris and Charles Laird, 

U.S.N. 4to. 1885. Bureau of Navigation 

Report on the Telegraphio Determination of Longitudes in Mexico, 

Central America, the West Indies, and on the North Coast of South 

America, with the Latitudes of the Several Stations. By Lieuts. J. 

A. Norris and Charles Laird, U. 8. N. To which is appended a 

Report on Magnetic Observations In Mexico and the West Indies. 

By Lieut. Charles Laird, and Ensigns J. H. L. Holcombe and L. M. 

Garrett, U. 8. N. 4to. 1891. Bureau of Navigation 

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MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS— Continued. 



Report of the International Meteorologic Congress at Paris. 
By Lieut. Aaron Ward, U. S. N. (Pamphlet.) 1890- 

The Average Form of Isolated Submarine Peaks, and the interval 
which should obtain between deep-sea soundings taken to disclose 
the character of the bottom of the ocean. By G. W. Littlehales. 
8vo. 1890. Hydrographic OflBce ._. _ 

Report on Uniform System for Spelling Foreign Geographic Names. 
By Lieut. C. M. McCarteney, U. S. N., Boynton Leach, and Gustave 
Herrle. (Pamphlet.) 1891. Hydrograpjiic Office 

Submarine Cables; Instruments and Implements Employed in Cable 
Surveys; Theory of Cable Laying; Specifications and Costs; Sub- 
marine Cable Systems of the World. Prepared by G. W. Little- 
hales. 8vo. 1892. Hydrographic Office 

Wrecks and Derelicts in the North Atlantic Ocean. 1887 to 1893, 
inclusive. 4to. 1894. Hydrographic Office 



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AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE CHARTS, 
SAILING DIRECTIONS, ETC. 



AGENTS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Geo. B. Carpenter & Co., 202-208 South Water street, Chicago, 111. 

Rand, McNally & Co., 164-168 Adams street, Chicago, 111. 

Burrows Brothers' Company, 28-27 Eu(5lid avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Smith & Swainson, 144 Superior street, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Marine Review, Cleveland, Ohio. 

H. D. Edwards & Co., 16-24, Woodward avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Howard C. Bristol, U. S. Signal Observer, East Tawas, Mich. 

Kendall Marine Reporting Company, Port Huron, Mich. 

Geo. E. C. Seaman, Sault Sainte Marie, Mich. 

P. M. Church, Sault Sainte Marie, Mich. 

Joys Bros. & Co., 205 East Water street, Milwaukee, Wis. 

John S. Parsons, corner West Cayuga and Water streets, Oswego, N. Y. 

Warehouse and Builders' Supply Company, West Superior, Wis. 

G. H. Cummings, Eastport, Me. 

N. C. Wallace, Millbridge, Me. 

Albert W. Bee, Bar Harbor, Me. 

Spear, May & Stover, No. 408 Main street, Rockland, Me. 

George Bliss, Waldoboro, Me. 

William O. McCobb, Booth Bay Harbor, Me. 

Charles A. Harriman, Bath, Me. 

William Senter & Co., No. 51 Exchange street, Portland, Me. 

P. A. Chisolm, No. 161 Main street, Gloucester, Mass. 

Henry P. Ives, No. 232 Essex street, Salem, Mass. 

Charles C. Hutchinson, No. 152 State street, Boston, Mass. 

Samuel Thaxter & Son, No. 125 State street, Boston, Mass. 

E. St. Croix Oliver, Vineyard Haven, Mass. 

C. R. Sherman & Son, New Bedford, Mass. 

George A. Stockwell, 12 Board of Trade Building, Providence, R. I. 

J. M. K. Southwick, No. 185 Thames street, Newport, R. I, 

C. C. Ball, Block Island. 

D. B. Hempstead, No. 25 Bank street. New London, Conn. 
Sergt. P. Daniels, New London, Conn. 

James H. Stivers, No. 72 Water street, Stonington, Conn. , 
R. D. Stevens, customhouse, Hartford, Conn* 
H. H. Babcock, customhouse, New Haven, Conn. 
A. H. Kellam, New Haven, Conn. 

T. S. & J. D. Negus, No. 140 Water street. New York City. 
R. Merrill's Sons, No. 110 Wall street. New York City. 
Michael Rupp & Co., No. 39 South street, New York City. 
D. Eggert's Sons, No. 74 Wall street, New York City. 
John Bliss & Co., No. 128 Front street, New York City. 

(107) 



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108 HYDROGRAPHIG OFFICE AGENTS. 

Thomas Manning, No. 58 Beaver street, New York City. 

E. Steiger & Co., No. 25 Park Place, New York City. 

Thomas S. Faulkner, emigrant clearing house, Ellis Island, N. Y. 
Frank M. Porch, customhouse, Bridgeton, N. J. 
Riggs & Bro., No. 221 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. J. Sloane & Co., corner Pratt street and Speer's wharf, Baltimore, Md. 
M. B. O'Neal, No. 502 East Pratt street, Baltimore, Md. 

C. C. Lapsley, No. 53 South Gay street, Baltimore, Md. 

J. J, Chapman, No. 915 Pennsylvania avenue, Washington, D. C. 

W. H. Lowdermilk & Co., No. 1424 P street, NW., Washington, D. C. 

J. H. Hickcox, No. 906 M street, NW., Washington, D. C. 

Wm. Ballentine & Sons, Washington, D. C. 

R. Bell's Sons, South Fairfax street, Alexandria, Va. 

C. F. Greenwood & Bro., No. 158 Main street, Norfolk, Va. 

Vickery & Co., No. 124 Main street, Norfolk, Va. 

Godfrey Hart, No. 24 South Front street, Wilmington, N. C. 

W. N. Harriss, with Geo. Harriss & Co., North Water street, Wilmington, N. C. 

W. A. Wilson, No. 115 East Bay street, Charleston, S. C. 

James Allen & Co., Charleston, S. C. 

J. P. Johnson, customhouse, Savannah, Ga. 

W. S. Cherry & Co., No. 89 Bay street. Savannah, Ga. 

J. W. Howell, customhouse, Fernandina, Fla. 

Horace Drew, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Robert Ransom, Titusville, Fla. 

Brelsford Bros., Palm Beach, Fla. 

H. B. Boyer, Key West, Fla. 

Alfred Brost, office of lighthouse inspector. Key West, Fla. 

Babbitt & Co., Franklin street, Tampa, Fla. 

C. D. Webster, 88 and $5 Tarpon avenue, Tarpon Springs, Fla. 

J. E. Grady, Apalachicola, Fla. 

Henry Horsier & Co., 706 and 708 South Palafox street, Pensacola, Fla. , 

McKezie, Oerting & Co., 599 South Palafox street, Pensacola, Fla. 

J. R. Edwards, Mobile, Ala. 

Pollard & Bond, Mobile, Ala. 

Bright, Costello & Co., Mobile, Ala. 

Jas. S. Friar, Pascagoula, Miss. 

L. Frigerio, No. 161 Canal street, New Orleans, La. 

Woodward, Wight & Co., Nos., 38, 40, 42 Canal street, New Orleans, La. 

Frigerio & Schully, 85 Royal street, New Orleans, La. 

Chas. F. Trube, Galveston, Tex. 

E. M. Burbeck, corner Fifth and D streets, San Diego, Cal. 

W. L. Banning, San Pedro, Cal. 

StoU & Thayer Co., 139 South Spring street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

H. A. C. McPhail, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

S. S. Arnheim, No. 8 Stuart street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Dillon & Co., No. 310 California street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Louis Weule, No. 418 Battery street, San Francisco, Cal. 

H. Lawrenson, No. 8 Stuart street, San Francisco, Cal. 

James E. Matthews, Eureka, Humboldt County, Cal. 

Griffen & Reed, Astoria, Oreg. 

J. K. Gill & Co., Nos. 28 and 30 First street, Portland, Oreg. 

James Jones, Port Townsend, Wash. 

Waterman & Katz, Port Townsend, Wash. 

Vaughen & Morrill, Tacoma, Wash. 



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HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE AGENTS. 109 



Boeringer & Co., Tacoma, Wash., 
Frank P. Dow, New Whatcom, Wash. 



AGENTS IN FOBBION POBTS. 

Lowman & Hanford, Seattle, Wash. 

W. H. Pumphrey, Seattle, Wash. 

Edward De Groff, Sitka, Alaska. 

T. N. Hibben & Co., 67 Government street, Victoria, British Columbia. 

Garrett Byrne, St. Johns, Newfoundland. 

Alex. Bain, Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia. 

Robert H. Cogswell, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

J. & A. McMillan, St. John, New Brunswick. 

Hearn & Harrison, 1640 Notre Dame street, Montreal, Canada. 

Hunter & Grant, Hamilton, Ontario. 

T. Darling & Co., Nassau, Bahama. 

E. J. D. Astwood, Turks Island. 

Edwin W. Wilson, 41 and 43 Obispo street, Havana, Cuba. 

J. P. Thorsen, St. Thomas, West Indies. 

James Gall, Kingston, Jamaica. 

John A. Donnatien, Port Spain, Trinidad, West Indies. 

Para, Brazil, at the consulate. 

Manuel Bottini, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Arthur B. Dallas, Pernambuco, Brazil. 

St. Helena Island, at the consulate. 

John Newton, 2 Calle de la Constitucion, Callao, Peru. 

F. A. Markert, Guaymas, Mexico. 

Philip, Son & Nephew, 41 to 51 South Castl^ street, Liverpool, England. 
Alexander Dobbie & Son, 18 Clyde Place, Glasgow, Scotland. 
V. & M. Lepetit, 15 Rue de Paris, Havre, France. 

G. W. Lohmann, Schliefmuhle 21, Bremen, Germany. 
Eckardt & Messtorff, Hamburg, Germany. 
Charles Gaupp & Co., Hongkong, China. 

Russell L. Webb, Manila, Philippine Islands. 



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